ttph-10q_20180331.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                      

Commission File Number: 001-35837

 

TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

20-5276217

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

480 Arsenal Way

Watertown, MA

(Address of principal executive offices)

02472

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (617) 715-3600

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

As of May 2, 2018, there were 51,629,987 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.

 

 

 

 


 

TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

FORM 10-Q

FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page No.

 

 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

3

 

 

 

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

3

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017

3

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

4

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

5

 

 

 

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

6

 

 

 

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

16

 

 

 

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

25

 

 

 

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

25

 

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

26

 

 

 

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

26

 

 

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

26

 

 

 

Item 6.

Exhibits

52

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

54

 

 

2


 

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except par value amounts)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

117,665

 

 

$

136,411

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

3,213

 

 

 

4,653

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

6,931

 

 

 

6,382

 

Total current assets

 

 

127,809

 

 

 

147,446

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

1,362

 

 

 

1,395

 

Restricted cash

 

 

199

 

 

 

199

 

Other assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$

129,370

 

 

$

149,040

 

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

3,599

 

 

$

5,306

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

6,124

 

 

 

12,559

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

7,479

 

 

 

660

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

17,202

 

 

 

18,525

 

Other long term liabilities

 

 

131

 

 

 

105

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share; 5,000 shares authorized;

   no shares issued and outstanding

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, par value $0.001 per share; 125,000 shares authorized; 51,630 and 51,458

   shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

52

 

 

 

51

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

595,445

 

 

 

592,243

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(483,460

)

 

 

(461,884

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

112,037

 

 

 

130,410

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

129,370

 

 

$

149,040

 

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

3


 

TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(In thousands, except per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

March 31,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Revenues

$

1,891

 

 

$

1,485

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

18,127

 

 

 

25,947

 

General and administrative

 

5,705

 

 

 

5,133

 

Total operating expenses

 

23,832

 

 

 

31,080

 

Loss from operations

 

(21,941

)

 

 

(29,595

)

Other income

 

365

 

 

 

137

 

Net loss

$

(21,576

)

 

$

(29,458

)

Net loss per share-basic and diluted

$

(0.42

)

 

$

(0.79

)

Weighted-average number of common shares used in net loss

   per share-basic and diluted

 

51,601

 

 

 

37,093

 

Comprehensive loss

$

(21,576

)

 

$

(29,458

)

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

4


 

TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017 (as revised) *

 

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(21,576

)

 

$

(29,458

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

116

 

 

 

90

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

2,971

 

 

 

3,076

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

1,440

 

 

 

86

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

(548

)

 

 

2,753

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(1,707

)

 

 

1,040

 

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

 

(6,409

)

 

 

4,072

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

6,819

 

 

 

(404

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(18,894

)

 

 

(18,745

)

Investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(83

)

 

 

(504

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(83

)

 

 

(504

)

Financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from sale of common stock, net of issuance costs

 

 

 

 

 

5,234

 

Proceeds from issuance of stock under stock plans

 

 

231

 

 

 

88

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

231

 

 

 

5,322

 

Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

$

(18,746

)

 

$

(13,927

)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

 

 

136,610

 

 

 

142,285

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

 

$

117,864

 

 

$

128,358

 

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

*

Cash flow presentation has been revised due to adoption of ASU 2016-18.

 

5


 

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(Unaudited)

 

1. Organization and Operations

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”) is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company using its proprietary chemistry technology to create and commercialize novel antibiotics for serious and life-threatening multidrug-resistant infections. The Company is developing its lead product candidate, eravacycline, a fully synthetic fluorocycline, as an intravenous (IV) antibiotic for use as a first-line empiric monotherapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections, including multidrug-resistant (MDR), Gram-negative infections, such as those found in complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI).

The Company has conducted a global phase 3 clinical program for eravacycline called IGNITE (Investigating Gram-Negative Infections Treated with Eravacycline).

In January 2018, the Company announced that it had submitted a new drug application (NDA) for IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based on the positive results from two of its phase 3 clinical trials (IGNITE1 and IGNITE4). The Company’s Prescription Drug User Fee Act goal date, or PDUFA, for the FDA’s completion of its review of the NDA for eravacycline is August 28, 2018. In the third quarter of 2017, the Company submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA), to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI primarily based upon the results of IGNITE1.

In February 2018, the Company announced that IV eravacycline did not meet the co-primary endpoints in the IGNITE3 trial, a global phase 3 randomized, multi-center, double-blind, clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of once-daily IV eravacycline compared to ertapenem for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI). Given the IGNITE3 results, the Company has ceased development of IV and oral eravacycline for the treatment of cUTI.

In addition to eravacycline, the Company is pursuing development of TP-271, a fully synthetic fluorocycline being developed for respiratory disease caused by bacterial biothreat pathogens, as well as bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, and TP-6076, a fully synthetic fluorocycline, targeted at unmet medical needs, including MDR Gram-negative bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii. Both these programs are in phase 1.

The Company has incurred annual net operating losses each year since its inception. As of March 31, 2018, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $483.5 million. The Company has not generated any product revenues and has financed its operations primarily through public offerings and private placements of its equity securities, debt financings and funding from the United States government.

There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing or generate product revenue or revenues from collaborative partners, on terms acceptable to the Company, on a timely basis or at all. The failure of the Company to obtain sufficient funds on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

2.  Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited. These unaudited financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for complete financial statements. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes for the year ended December 31, 2017 contained in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 6, 2018 (the “2017 Form 10-K”). The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) necessary to state fairly the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2018 and the results of operations and comprehensive loss and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. Interim operating

 

6


 

results for the three months ended March 31, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for future interim periods or for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2018.

The December 31, 2017 condensed consolidated balance sheet included herein was derived from audited consolidated financial statements, but does not include all disclosures including notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements.   

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, the Company’s management evaluates its estimates, including estimates related to its going concern evaluation, clinical trial accruals, stock-based compensation expense, contract and grant revenues, and expenses. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and other market-specific or other relevant assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from those estimates or assumptions.

Out-Licensing Revenue Recognition

The Company has entered into an out-licensing agreement that is evaluated under Accounting Standards Codification, Topic 606 (“Topic 606”), Revenue from Contracts with Customers, through which the Company licenses certain of its product candidates’ rights to a third party. Any future out-licensing agreements entered into by the Company and additional third parties shall also be evaluated under Topic 606. Terms of these arrangements include various payment types, typically including one or more of the following: up-front license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; payments for manufacturing supply services; and/or royalties on net sales of licensed products.

To determine the amount and timing of revenue to be recognized under each agreement, the Company evaluates the following criteria: (i) confirming the goods or services in the contract; (ii) defining the performance obligations under the agreement; (iii) determining the transaction price, including any constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) defining how the revenue will be recognized for each performance obligation. In determining the accounting treatment for these arrangements, the Company develops assumptions to determine the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation in the contract. These assumptions may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success.

Licenses of Intellectual Property: If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue from up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee, including any associated know-how and the licensee can use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other obligations, the Company uses judgment to evaluate the combined performance obligation to determine whether it is satisfied over time or at a point in time and the appropriate method of measuring completion for purposes of recognizing revenue.  

Milestone Payments: For arrangements that include development milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the Company’s control or the licensee’s control, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received.  

Manufacturing Supply: Arrangements that include a promise for future supply of drug substance or drug product for either clinical development or commercial supply at the licensee’s discretion are generally considered as options. The Company assesses if these options provide a material right to the licensee and if so, they are accounted for as separate performance obligations. If the Company is entitled to additional payments when the licensee exercises these options, the Company recognizes revenue when the licensee obtains control of the goods, which is upon delivery.

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).  

Principles of Consolidation

The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

7


 

Going Concern Assessment

Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern, requires management to evaluate the company’s ability to continue as a going concern one year beyond the filing date of the given financial statements. This evaluation requires management to perform two steps. First, management must evaluate whether there are conditions and events that raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. Second, if management concludes that substantial doubt is raised, management is required to consider whether it has plans in place to alleviate that doubt. Disclosures in the notes to the financial statements are required if management concludes that substantial doubt exists or that its plans alleviate the substantial doubt that was raised.

Based on a detailed cash forecast incorporating current development activities and related spending plans, the Company expects its cash to last more than one year beyond the date that the financial statements were issued. Based on this analysis, no additional disclosures are required.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In November 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (ASU 2016-18), which requires companies to include amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in cash and cash equivalents when reconciling beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statements of cash flows. The Company adopted the new standard effective January 1, 2018, using the retrospective transition approach. The reclassified restricted cash balances from operating activities to changes in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows were not material for all periods presented.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes all existing revenue recognition requirements, including most industry-specific guidance. The new standard requires a company to recognize revenue when it transfers goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that the company expects to receive for those goods or services. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date, which delayed the effective date of the new standard from January 1, 2017 to January 1, 2018. The FASB also agreed to allow entities to choose to adopt the standard as of the original effective date. The FASB has subsequently issued ASU 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net); ASU 2016-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing; ASU 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients; and ASU 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

The Company has concluded that its government grants are not within the scope of Topic 606, as they do not meet the definition of a contract with a “customer”. The Company has concluded that the grants meet the definition of a contribution and are non-reciprocal transactions. The Company has further concluded that Subtopic 958-605, Not-for-Profit-Entities-Revenue Recognition also does not apply, as the Company is a business entity and the grants are with governmental agencies or units. The government grant is technically to a non-profit entity that specializes in government grant administration, project management and oversight (i.e. CUBRC). However, the Company has concluded that, in effect, it is a grant from the government; as the contracting counterparty CUBRC is merely administering the agreement between the government (who is funding the work) and the Company (who is performing the work).  

In the absence of applicable guidance under US GAAP as of January 1, 2018 for the grants, the Company has developed a policy for the recognition of revenue for the grants as follows:

 

Revenue is recognized when the right to payment is realized or is realizable

 

Revenues are realized when services are exchanged for cash or claims to cash. Revenues are not recognized until earned.

 

The Company’s revenue-earning activities involve rendering services that constitute its ongoing major or central operations, and revenues are considered to have been earned when the Company has substantially accomplished what it must do to be entitled to the benefits represented by the revenues.

The Company believes this policy is consistent with the overarching premise in Topic 606, to ensure that it recognizes revenues to reflect the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services, even though there is no “exchange” as defined in the ASC. The Company believes the recognition of revenue as costs are incurred and amounts become earned/realizable is analogous to the concept of transfer of control of a service over time under ASC 606.

 

8


 

Prior to January 1, 2018, the Company recognized revenue as it performed services under the grants so long as an agreement had been executed and the fees for these services were fixed or determinable, legally billable and reasonably assured of collection. Recognized amounts reflected the Company’s partial performance under the grants and equal direct and indirect costs incurred plus fixed fees, where applicable. Revenues and expenses under these arrangements were presented gross. Revenue recognition under this new policy is not materially different than would have been calculated under the old guidance. As a result of the adoption of this policy, there was no change to the amounts the Company has historically recorded to its financial statements.

There have been no other significant changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies since the beginning of this fiscal year.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-09”). ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, forfeiture rates, and classification on the statement of cash flows. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those annual reporting periods. The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-09 as of January 1, 2017. As a result of adopting ASU No. 2016-09, the Company elected to recognize share-based award forfeitures only as they occur rather than by applying an estimated forfeiture rate as previously required. ASU No. 2016-09 requires that this change be applied using a modified-retrospective transition method by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year in which the guidance is adopted. The Company did not make an adjustment to retained earnings as the amount was immaterial to the financial statements.

In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new standard requires that all lessees recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from leases on the balance sheet and disclose qualitative and quantitative information about its leasing arrangements. The new standard will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that this standard may have on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

3.  Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company’s financial instruments consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities. Fair value measurements are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:

 

 

 

 

Level 1

Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

 

 

 

Level 2

Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

 

 

 

Level 3

Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

Financial instruments measured at fair value as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 are classified below based on the three fair value hierarchy tiers described above (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements at

Reporting Date Using

 

 

 

Balance

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

March 31, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and money market funds

 

$

117,665

 

 

$

117,665

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and money market funds

 

$

136,411

 

 

$

136,411

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

The Company measures cash equivalents at fair value on a recurring basis. The fair value of cash equivalents is determined based on “Level 1” inputs, which consist of quoted prices in active markets for identical assets.

 

9


 

4.  Net Loss per Common Share

Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. The Company’s potentially dilutive shares, which include outstanding stock options, unvested restricted stock units and warrants are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share when their effect is dilutive.

The amounts in the table below were excluded from the calculation of net loss per share, due to their anti-dilutive effect:

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Warrants

 

 

 

 

 

1,103

 

Unvested restricted stock units

 

 

456,348

 

 

 

341,353

 

Outstanding stock options

 

 

7,083,688

 

 

 

5,912,563

 

Totals

 

 

7,540,036

 

 

 

6,255,019

 

 

5.  Significant Agreements and Contracts

Harvard License Agreement

In August 2006, the Company entered into a license agreement for certain intellectual property with Harvard University (“Harvard”). Under the license agreement, as of March 31, 2018, the Company has paid Harvard an aggregate of $9.1 million in upfront license fees and development milestone payments, and has issued 31,379 shares of common stock to Harvard. For each product covered by the license agreement, the Company is obligated to make certain payments totaling up to approximately $15.1 million upon achievement of certain development and regulatory milestones and to pay additional royalties on net sales of such product. The Company is also obligated to make certain payments to Harvard based on amounts received under its license agreement with Everest Medicines Limited. During the three months ended March 31, 2018 the Company expensed $1.4 million, the amount due to Harvard related to the Everest Medicines license agreement.

Other Material Agreements

Everest Medicines License Agreement

In February 2018, the Company entered into a license agreement (the “Everest License Agreement”) with Everest Medicines Limited (“Everest Medicines”), whereby the Company granted Everest Medicines an exclusive license to develop and commercialize eravacycline, for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and other indications, in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, South Korea and Singapore (the “Territory”).

 

Under the terms of the Everest License Agreement, the Company received from Everest Medicines an upfront cash payment of $7.0 million within 15 business days of the effective date of the Everest License Agreement, and is eligible to receive up to an aggregate of $16.5 million in clinical development and up to $20.0 million in sales milestone payments. There can be no guarantee that any such milestones or sales thresholds will in fact be met. The Company is obligated to make certain payments to Harvard based on amounts received from Everest Medicines under the Everest License Agreement pursuant to the existing license agreement by and between Harvard and the Company.

 

The Company will also be entitled to receive low double-digit tiered royalties on sales in the Territory, if any, of products containing eravacycline. Royalties are payable with respect to each jurisdiction in the Territory until the latest to occur of: (i) the last-to-expire of specified patent rights in such jurisdiction in the Territory; (ii) expiration of marketing or regulatory exclusivity in such jurisdiction in the Territory; or (iii) ten (10) years after the first commercial sale of a product in such jurisdiction in the Territory. In addition, royalties payable under the Everest License Agreement will be subject to reduction on account of generic competition and after patent expiry in a jurisdiction if required by applicable law, with any such reductions capped at certain percentages of the amounts otherwise payable during the applicable royalty payment period.

 

Under the terms and conditions of the Everest License Agreement, Everest Medicines will be solely responsible for the development and commercialization of licensed products in the Territory. The Company agreed to manufacture clinical material, which will be paid by Everest at the Company’s cost, as well as commercial supply, which will be paid by Everest at cost plus a reasonable margin.

If either the Company or Everest Medicines materially breaches the Everest License Agreement and does not cure such breach within 90 days (or fewer days in certain cases), the non-breaching party may terminate the Everest License Agreement in its

 

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entirety. However, if the breach relates only to any jurisdiction other than mainland China, the non-breaching party may only terminate the Everest License Agreement with respect to such jurisdiction. Either party may also terminate the Everest License Agreement, effective immediately upon written notice, if the other party files for bankruptcy, is dissolved or has a receiver appointed for substantially all of its property. The Company may terminate the Everest License Agreement if Everest Medicines, its affiliates or its sublicensees challenges the validity or enforceability of any of the Company’s patents covering any of the licensed compounds or products. In certain circumstances, if the Company materially breaches the Everest License Agreement Everest Medicines may reduce royalties owed to the Company in lieu of a termination. Moreover, if the Company materially breaches the Everest License Agreement and Everest Medicines terminates the Everest License Agreement with respect to any jurisdiction and the Company then commercializes a licensed product in that jurisdiction, the Company will pay to Everest Medicines a low, single digit royalty on such sales of the licensed product in such jurisdiction for a minimum of five years after such termination.

In evaluating the recognition of revenue under the Agreement, the Company identified the following three performance obligations under the Agreement: (i) exclusive license to develop and commercialize eravacycline for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and other potential, future indications, in the Territory, (ii) provision of information and technical assistance related to the know-how transfer for the development of eravacycline; and (iii) a material right related to the provision of clinical supply to Everest Medicines.

The Company evaluated the Everest License Agreement under Topic 606. Based on that evaluation, the up-front fee of $7 million represented the amount of the consideration to be included in the transaction price, which will be allocated to the identified performance obligations. No clinical milestones, regulatory milestones, sales-based milestones or sales royalties have been included in the transaction price, as these milestones are not considered probable and commercial sales have not commenced. The Company determined that the license and related know-how were a combined performance obligation as the license is not distinct without the provision of the related know-how transfer. The Company’s requirement to manufacture clinical supply for Everest is dependent on Everest Medicines’ future purchases, the payment for which was determined to be at cost and therefore represents a material right. As a result, the Company allocated the transaction price to the performance obligations based on the estimated standalone selling price of each performance obligation, as well as the likelihood of Everest Medicines’ exercise of its option to purchase clinical supply.  

The Company will re-evaluate the transaction price in each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur. As of March 31, 2018, the Company had received the upfront payment totaling $7.0 million but has not yet recognized any revenue associated with this agreement as the Company had not yet delivered the license and related know-how, nor has the Company delivered any clinical supply to Everest Medicines.

Patheon UK Limited Master Manufacturing Services Agreement

In June 2017, the Company and Patheon UK Limited and certain of its affiliates (“Patheon”) entered into a master manufacturing services agreement. Under the Patheon agreement, the Company is responsible for supplying the active pharmaceutical ingredient for eravacycline to Patheon, and Patheon is responsible for manufacturing eravacycline, conducting quality control, quality assurance, analytical testing and stability testing and packaging. The Company and Patheon entered into two related product agreements pursuant to the Patheon agreement that govern the terms and conditions of Patheon’s manufacture of commercial supplies of eravacycline at Patheon’s Greenville, North Carolina and Ferentino, Italy manufacturing sites. Pursuant to the Patheon agreement, the Company has agreed to order from Patheon at least a certain percentage of its annual commercial requirements for eravacycline in the United States and European Union each year for the term of the Patheon agreement. The Patheon agreement has an initial term ending December 31, 2022, and will automatically renew after the initial term for successive terms of two years each, unless either party gives notice of its intention to terminate at least 18 months prior to the end of the then current term. The Company may terminate a product agreement upon 30 days’ prior written notice under certain circumstances.

Finorga SAS Commercial Supply Agreement

In October 2017, the Company and Finorga SAS (“Novasep”) entered into a commercial supply agreement. Under the agreement, Novasep will, pursuant to accepted purchase orders entered into under the agreement, manufacture for commercial supply the active pharmaceutical ingredient for eravacycline. This agreement has an initial term ending October 16, 2022, and will automatically renew after the initial term, unless either party gives notice of its intention to terminate at least 18 months prior to the end of the then current term. The Company may terminate the Novasep agreement upon 30 days’ prior written notice under certain circumstances.

Government Grant and Contracts

BARDA Contract for Eravacycline

The Company has received funding for its lead product candidate, eravacycline, under an award from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, or BARDA, an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In

 

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January 2012, BARDA awarded a five-year contract, which has since been extended, that provides for up to a total of $67.3 million in funding for the development, manufacturing and clinical evaluation of eravacycline for the treatment of disease caused by bacterial biothreat pathogens (“BARDA Contract”). The funding under the BARDA Contract is also being used for the development, manufacturing and clinical evaluation of eravacycline to treat certain infections caused by life-threatening MDR bacteria.

In connection with the BARDA Contract, in February 2012, the Company entered into a cost-plus-fixed-fee subcontract with CUBRC Inc. (“CUBRC”), an independent, not for profit, research corporation that specializes in U.S. government-based contracts, which is also the direct recipient of the BARDA Contract. This subcontract, which currently expires on September 30, 2018, granted the Company initial funding of up to approximately $41.8 million, reflecting the portion of the BARDA Contract funding that may be paid to the Company for its activities.

Although the BARDA Contract and the Company’s subcontract with CUBRC under the BARDA Contract have terms which currently expire on September 30, 2018, BARDA is entitled to terminate the project for convenience at any time, and is not obligated to provide continued funding beyond current-year amounts from congressionally approved annual appropriations. To the extent that BARDA ceases to provide funding of the program to CUBRC, CUBRC has the right to cease providing funding to the Company. Committed funding from CUBRC under the Company’s BARDA subcontract is for up to approximately $41.8 million through September 30, 2018, the current contract end date, as a result of the exercise of several options by BARDA under the BARDA Contract. Total funds of $37.5 million had been received by the Company through March 31, 2018 under this contract. During the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company recognized revenue of $0.4 million and $0.5 million, respectively, from the Company’s subcontract under the BARDA Contract.

NIAID Grant and Contract for TP-271

The Company has received funding for its phase 1 compound TP-271 under two awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, or NIAID, for the development, manufacturing and clinical evaluation of TP-271 for respiratory diseases caused by biothreat and antibiotic-resistant public health pathogens, as well as bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia:

 

the NIAID Grant awarded in July 2011 that provides up to a total of approximately $2.9 million over five years; and

 

the NIAID Contract awarded in September 2011 that provides up to a total of approximately $35.8 million over five years.

In connection with the NIAID Grant, in November 2011, CUBRC, the direct recipient of the NIAID Grant, awarded the Company a no-fee subaward of approximately $0.9 million, reflecting the portion of the NIAID Grant funding that may be paid to the Company for its activities.

In connection with the NIAID Contract, in October 2011, the Company entered into a cost-plus-fixed-fee subcontract with CUBRC, the direct recipient of the NIAID Contract, which subcontract currently expires on March 31, 2019 under which the Company may receive funding of up to approximately $16.9 million, reflecting the portion of the NIAID Contract funding that may be paid to the Company for its activities.

Although the NIAID Contract and the Company’s subcontract with CUBRC under the NIAID Contract have terms which currently expire on March 31, 2019, and the Company’s subaward under the NIAID Grant has a term which expired on May 31, 2017, NIAID is entitled to terminate the project for convenience at any time, and is not obligated to provide continued funding beyond the respective expiration dates. To the extent that NIAID ceases to provide funding of the programs to CUBRC, CUBRC has the right to cease providing funding to the Company. As of March 31, 2018, committed funding from CUBRC under the Company’s subcontract with respect to the NIAID Contract is $16.9 million, of which $14.2 million had been received through March 31, 2018. Through March 31, 2018, the Company received all committed funding of $0.9 million from CUBRC under the Company’s subaward with respect to the NIAID Grant.

During the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company recognized revenue of $0.7 million and $1.0 million, respectively, from the Company’s subcontract under the NIAID Contract. During the three months ended March 31, 2018, the Company recognized no revenue from its subaward under the NIAID Grant compared to revenue of $6,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2017, as the grant expired in May 2017.

CARB-X Award for TP-6076

In March 2017, CARB-X selected the Company to receive up to $4.0 million in research funding over eighteen months for TP-6076. In connection with this funding, the Company entered into a cost reimbursement Sub-Award Agreement (the “Sub-Award

 

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Agreement”) with the Trustees of Boston University, the administrator of the program. The Company began recognizing revenue from the Sub-Award Agreement in April 2017. During the three months ended March 31, 2018, the Company recognized revenue of $0.7 million under this Sub-Award Agreement, and has received $0.4 million from its inception through March 31, 2018. This Sub-Award Agreement will fund certain activities through the end of 2018. This Sub-Award Agreement can be terminated for convenience at any time, subject to 30 days prior written notice.

 

6.  Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Clinical trial related

 

$

1,571

 

 

$

3,401

 

Salaries and benefits

 

 

1,544

 

 

 

4,137

 

Drug supply and development

 

 

1,328

 

 

 

2,298

 

Professional fees

 

 

966

 

 

 

1,911

 

Other

 

 

715

 

 

 

812

 

Total

 

$

6,124

 

 

$

12,559

 

 

 

7.  Stock-Based Compensation

In January 2018, the number of shares available for issuance under the Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2013 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended (“2013 Plan”) was increased by approximately 2.1 million shares as a result of the automatic increase provision of the 2013 Plan. As of March 31, 2018, the total number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2013 Plan was approximately 1.3 million.

Stock-Based Compensation Expense

During the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company recognized the following stock-based compensation expense (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Research and development

 

$

1,360

 

 

$

1,578

 

General and administrative

 

 

1,611

 

 

 

1,498

 

Total

 

$

2,971

 

 

$

3,076

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Stock options

 

$

2,787

 

 

$

2,869

 

Restricted stock units

 

 

168

 

 

 

182

 

Employee stock purchase plan

 

 

16

 

 

 

25

 

Total

 

$

2,971

 

 

$

3,076

 

 

 

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Stock Options

The following table summarizes the stock option activity for the three months ended March 31, 2018:

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Exercise

Price

 

Outstanding at December 31, 2017

 

 

5,997,794

 

 

$

13.33

 

Granted

 

 

2,010,475

 

 

$

6.16

 

Exercised

 

 

(103,952

)

 

$

2.22

 

Forfeited

 

 

(820,629

)

 

$

10.62

 

Outstanding at March 31, 2018

 

 

7,083,688

 

 

$

11.77

 

Exercisable at March 31, 2018

 

 

2,925,823

 

 

$

16.84

 

 

As of March 31, 2018, there was $20.9 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation cost related to employee unvested stock options granted under the 2013 Plan. The Company expects to recognize that cost over a remaining weighted-average period of 2.8 years.

Restricted Stock Units

In January 2016, the Company granted additional restricted stock units to employees. These restricted stock units vest in annual increments over three years, subject to continued employment with the Company and had a grant date fair value of $8.47 per share, which was the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant.  

In January 2018 and 2017, the Company issued 284,000 and 175,000 restricted stock units, respectively, with service and performance conditions to certain employees, none of which vested during the three months ended March 31, 2018. Vesting of these awards is contingent on the occurrence of certain milestone events and fulfillment of any remaining service condition. As a result, the related compensation cost is recognized as an expense when achievement of the milestone is considered probable over the remaining requisite service period.

The following table summarizes the restricted stock activity for the three months ended March 31, 2018:

  

 

 

Shares

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Grant Date Fair Value

 

Unvested at December 31, 2017

 

 

282,034

 

 

$

6.08

 

Granted

 

 

284,000

 

 

$

6.28

 

Forfeited

 

 

(68,528

)

 

$

8.47

 

Vested/Released

 

 

(41,158

)

 

$

6.30

 

Unvested at March 31, 2018

 

 

456,348

 

 

$

5.83

 

 

As of March 31, 2018, there was $0.9 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to restricted stock units granted under the 2013 Plan. The expense is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.2 years.    

Employee stock purchase plan

Under the Company’s 2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“2014 ESPP”), an aggregate of 300,000 shares of common stock have been reserved for issuance pursuant to purchase rights granted to the Company’s employees. As of March 31, 2018, 138,878 shares remained available for issuance. During the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 the Company did not issue any shares under the 2014 ESPP, and recognized approximately $16,000 and $25,000 in related stock-based compensation expense, respectively. 

8.  Equity

On January 17, 2017, the Company entered into a Controlled Equity Offering Sales Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”), with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. as sales agent (“Cantor”). On July 7, 2017, the Company entered into an amendment to the Sales Agreement to increase the maximum aggregate offering price of the shares of common stock that it may issue and sell from time to time under the Sales Agreement from $40,000,000 to $80,000,000.

 

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Under the Sales Agreement, as amended (the “Amended Sales Agreement”), Cantor may sell shares of the Company’s common stock by methods deemed to be an “at-the-market” offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, including sales made directly on The NASDAQ Global Select Market or on any other existing trading market for the Company’s common stock.

The Company is not obligated to make any sales of shares of its common stock under the Amended Sales Agreement. The Company or Cantor may suspend or terminate the offering of shares of the Company’s common stock upon notice to the other party and subject to other conditions. The Company will pay Cantor a commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds per share sold.

As of March 31, 2018, the Company had sold an aggregate of 4,157,873 shares of common stock under the Sales Agreement, at an average selling price of approximately $7.78 per share for aggregate gross proceeds of $32.4 million and net proceeds of $31.1 million after deducting the sales commissions and offering expenses. As of March 31, 2018, $47.6 million of common stock remained available to be sold under the amended Sales Agreement, subject to certain conditions specified therein.

On August 2, 2017, the Company sold 10,000,000 shares of common stock in an underwritten public offering at an offering price to the public of $6.50 per share, resulting in net proceeds to the Company of $60.7 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $3.9 million and offering costs of $0.4 million. In connection with the offering, the Company granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional 1,500,000 shares on the same terms and conditions as the offering, pursuant to which the underwriters exercised an option to purchase 107,000 additional shares on August 25, 2017, resulting in additional net proceeds to the Company of approximately $0.7 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

 

15


 

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The interim financial statements included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q and this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2017, and the related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contained in our annual report on Form 10-K filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on March 6, 2018, which we refer to as our annual report. In addition to historical information, this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those set forth in Part II — Other Information, Item 1A. Risk Factors below and elsewhere in this report that could cause actual results to differ materially from historical results or anticipated results.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company using our proprietary chemistry technology to create and commercialize novel antibiotics for serious and life-threatening multidrug-resistant, or MDR, infections. We are developing our lead product candidate, eravacycline, a fully synthetic fluorocycline, as an intravenous, or IV antibiotic for use as a first-line empiric monotherapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections, including MDR Gram-negative infections in patients, such as those with complicated intra-abdominal infections, or cIAI.  

We conducted a global phase 3 clinical program for eravacycline called IGNITE (Investigating Gram-Negative Infections Treated with Eravacycline).

On July 25, 2017, we announced top-line data from our IGNITE4 trial, a global phase 3 randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, prospective study assessing the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of twice-daily intravenous, or IV, eravacycline (1.0 mg/kg every 12 hours) compared with meropenem (1g every 8 hours) for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections, or cIAI that we conducted in 500 patients. In the trial, eravacycline met the primary endpoint of statistical non-inferiority of clinical response at the test-of-cure, or TOC, visit, under the guidance set by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and the European Medicines Agency, or EMA. Prior to IGNITE4, we conducted IGNITE1, a phase 3 clinical trial of twice-daily IV eravacycline (1.0 mg/kg every 12 hours) compared with ertapenem (1.0g IV every 24 hours) for the treatment of cIAI. In IGNITE1, eravacycline met the primary endpoint of statistical non-inferiority of clinical response. 

On January 2, 2018, we announced the submission of a New Drug Application, or NDA, to the FDA for IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI. The NDA submission includes data from the IGNITE1 and IGNITE4 phase 3 clinical trials. In the third quarter of 2017, we submitted a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the EMA for IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI primarily based upon the results of IGNITE1. In February 2018, the FDA notified us that it had completed its initial 60-day review of our NDA and August 28, 2018 was set as the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, goal date for the FDA’s completion of its review of our NDA.

The FDA has granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and Fast Track designations for IV eravacycline for cIAI.

In February 2018, we announced top-line data from our IGNITE3 trial, a global phase 3 randomized, multi-center, double-blind, clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of once-daily intravenous, or IV, eravacycline, at a dose of 1.5mg/kg every 24 hours, compared to ertapenem, at a dose of 1g every 24 hours, for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, or cUTI. We conducted the trial in 1,205 patients who were randomized 1:1 to receive eravacycline or ertapenem for a minimum of 5 days, and then were eligible for transition to an appropriate approved oral agent. In this trial, eravacycline did not meet the co-primary endpoints of responder rate, a combination of clinical cure and microbiological success, the microbiological intent-to-treat, or micro-ITT, population at the end-of-IV treatment visit and at the test-of-cure, or TOC, visit (5-10 days post therapy). These endpoints were evaluated using a 10% non-inferiority margin. Given the IGNITE3 results, we ceased development of IV and oral eravacycline for the treatment of cUTI.

Eravacycline is designed to treat a broad range of infections, including infections due to MDR bacteria. In in vitro experiments, eravacycline has demonstrated the ability to cover a wide variety of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobic and atypical bacteria, including multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter. Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (or CREs) listed as an urgent threat and multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter is listed as a serious threat by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, in a September 2013 report. They are also listed as “Priority 1; Critical Pathogens” in the World Health Organization’s priority pathogens list for R&D, published in February 2017. CREs were a confirmed area of great concern by the World Health Organization in an April 2014 global surveillance report. Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to multiple available antibiotics are increasingly common and a growing threat to public health. We believe that the ability of eravacycline to cover MDR Gram-negative bacteria, as well as

 

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MDR Gram-positive, anaerobic and atypical bacteria, will enable eravacycline to become the drug of choice for first-line empiric treatment of patients with cIAI.

In June 2017, we announced positive results from a phase 1 single-ascending dose clinical trial of the IV formulation of TP-271 in healthy volunteers. TP-271 is a fully-synthetic fluorocycline being developed for respiratory disease caused by bacterial biothreat and antibiotic-resistant public health pathogens, as well as bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. In the study, TP-271 was well-tolerated at single doses that resulted in high plasma exposures. There were no clinically significant changes in lab values, ECG parameters, or physical exam findings. There were no serious or severe adverse events, or discontinuations due to an adverse event during the study. We are completing a multiple-ascending dose trial for the IV formulation of TP-271 and a single-ascending dose trial for the oral formulation of TP-271. We also initiated a multiple-ascending dose phase 1 study for the oral formulation of TP-271 in the first quarter of 2018. In February 2017, we received Qualified Infectious Disease Product and Fast Track designations from the FDA for TP-271.

In addition, we are developing TP-6076, a fully-synthetic fluorocycline derivative, as a lead candidate under our second-generation program to target unmet medical needs, including MDR Gram-negative bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii. In June 2017, we announced positive results from a phase 1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-ascending dose study evaluating the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of IV TP-6076. In the study, TP-6076 was well-tolerated, and there were no serious or severe adverse events, or discontinuations due to an adverse event. There were no clinically significant safety findings in any laboratory assessments, vital signs, ECGs or physical examinations. We also are conducting a multiple-ascending study in healthy volunteers of the IV formulation of TP-6076 and expect to report the results of this study in the fourth quarter of 2018. 

We commenced business operations in July 2006. Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and developing our proprietary chemistry technology, identifying potential product candidates and undertaking preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates. To date, we have not generated any product revenue and have primarily financed our operations through public offerings and private placements of our equity securities, debt financings and funding from the United States government. As of March 31, 2018, we had received an aggregate of $553 million in net proceeds from the issuance of equity securities and borrowings under debt facilities and an aggregate of $53.0 million from government grants and contracts. As of March 31, 2018, our principal source of liquidity was cash and cash equivalents, which totaled $117.7 million.

As of March 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $483.5 million. Our net losses were $21.6 million and $29.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. We expect that our expenses will decrease in 2018 compared with 2017, as the completion of the IGNITE clinical program will offset cost increases associated with conducting pre-commercialization activities for eravacycline and, if approved, the launch of eravacycline. If we obtain marketing approval for eravacycline, we do expect to incur significant sales, marketing, distribution and outsourced manufacturing expenses.

We believe that our available funds will be sufficient to support our operations through the first half of 2019, which we believe will allow us to fund the initial launch of IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI. We will be required to obtain further funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources to fund our operations including ongoing spending to commercialize eravacycline. Our failure to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy.

Financial overview

Contract and Grant Revenue

We have derived all of our revenue to date from funding provided under three U.S. government awards for the development of our compounds as potential counter measures for the treatment of disease caused by bacterial biothreat pathogens through our collaborator CUBRC Inc., or CUBRC, an independent, not-for-profit, research corporation that specializes in U.S. government-based contracts, and from Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator, or CARB-X, an international public-private partnership focused on advancing new anti-microbial products to address the threat of antibiotic resistance.

We have received funding for our lead product candidate, eravacycline, under an award from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, or BARDA, an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In January 2012, BARDA awarded CUBRC an initial five-year contract, which has been extended, that provides for up to a total of $67.3 million in funding for the development, manufacturing and clinical evaluation of eravacycline for the treatment of disease caused by bacterial biothreat pathogens. We refer to this contract as the BARDA Contract. The funding under the BARDA Contract is also being used for the development, manufacturing and clinical evaluation of eravacycline to treat certain infections caused by life-threatening multidrug-resistant bacteria. We refer to this contract as the BARDA Contract.

 

17


 

We have received funding for TP-271 under two awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, or NIAID, a division of National Institutes of Health, for the development, manufacturing and clinical evaluation of TP-271 for respiratory diseases caused by biothreat and antibiotic-resistant public health pathogens, as well as bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia:

 

A grant awarded to CUBRC in July 2011 that provided up to a total of approximately $2.9 million through May 31, 2017, when it expired, which we refer to as the NIAID Grant; and

 

A contract awarded to CUBRC in September 2011 that provides up to a total of approximately $35.8 million in funding through March 31, 2019, which we refer to as the NIAID Contract.

We are collaborating with CUBRC on these grants and contracts, because when we initially decided to seek government funding, we recognized that we did not have any expertise in bidding for, administrating or managing government-funded contracts. CUBRC serves as the prime contractor under the BARDA Contract, the NIAID Grant and the NIAID Contract, primarily carrying out a program management and administrative role with additional responsibility for the management of preclinical studies. We serve as lead technical expert on all aspects of these awards and also serve as a subcontractor responsible for management of chemistry, manufacturing and control activities and clinical studies. We derive all of our revenue under these collaborations through subcontracts with, and a subaward from, CUBRC, with the flow of funds following the respective activities being conducted by us and by CUBRC.

 

In connection with the BARDA Contract, in February 2012, we entered into a cost-plus-fixed-fee subcontract with CUBRC which currently expires on September 30, 2018 under which we may receive funding of up to approximately $41.8 million, reflecting the portion of the BARDA Contract funding that may be paid to us for our activities.

 

In connection with the NIAID Contract, in October 2011, we entered into a cost-plus-fixed-fee subcontract with CUBRC which currently expires on March 31, 2019 under which we may receive funding of up to approximately $16.9 million, reflecting the portion of the NIAID Contract funding that may be paid to us for our activities.

 

In connection with the NIAID Grant, in November 2011, CUBRC awarded us an initial 55-month, no-fee subaward which was extended and expired on May 31, 2017 under which we received funding of up to approximately $0.9 million, reflecting the portion of the NIAID Grant funding that was paid to us for our activities.

Although the BARDA Contract and our subcontract with CUBRC under the BARDA Contract have terms which currently expire on September 30, 2018, BARDA is entitled to terminate the project for convenience at any time and is not obligated to provide continued funding beyond current-year amounts from congressionally approved annual appropriations. To the extent that BARDA ceases to provide funding of the program to CUBRC, CUBRC has the right to cease providing funding to us. Committed funding from CUBRC under our BARDA subcontract is up to $41.8 million from the initial contract date through September 30, 2018, of which $37.5 million had been received through March 31, 2018.

Similarly, although the NIAID Contract and our subcontract with CUBRC under the NIAID Contract have terms which currently expire on March 31, 2019, NIAID is entitled to terminate the project for convenience at any time and is not obligated to provide continued funding beyond March 31, 2019. To the extent NIAID ceases to provide funding of the programs to CUBRC, CUBRC has the right to cease providing funding to us. Committed funding from CUBRC under our subcontract with respect to the NIAID Contract is for up to $16.9 million, from the initial contract date through March 31, 2019, of which $14.2 million had been received through March 31, 2018.

In March 2017, CARB-X selected us to receive up to $4.0 million in research funding over 18 months for TP-6076. In connection with this funding, we entered into a cost reimbursement Sub-Award Agreement with the Trustees of Boston University, the administrator of the program. We began recognizing revenue from the Sub-Award Agreement in April 2017. Of the $4.0 million in committed funding, $0.4 million had been received through March 31, 2018. Although the Sub-Award Agreement has a term which currently expires on December 31, 2018, the project can be terminated for convenience at any time.  

We have no products approved for sale. Other than the government funding described above, we do not expect to receive any revenue from any product candidates that we develop, including eravacycline, until we obtain regulatory approval and commercialize such products or until we potentially enter into collaborative agreements with third parties for the development and commercialization of such product candidates. We continue to pursue government funding for other preclinical and clinical programs.

We expect that our revenue will be less than our expenses for the foreseeable future and that we will experience increasing losses as we continue our development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, our product candidates, and begin to commercialize any approved products. Even if we are able to generate revenue from the sale of one or more products, we may not become profitable.

 

18


 

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the research and development of our preclinical and clinical candidates, and include:

 

personnel-related expenses, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense;

 

expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, contract manufacturing organizations, and consultants that provide preclinical, clinical, regulatory and manufacturing services;

 

payments made under our license agreement with Harvard University or Harvard;

 

the cost of acquiring, developing and manufacturing clinical trial materials and lab supplies;

 

facility, depreciation and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent, maintenance of our facilities, insurance and other supplies; and

 

costs associated with preclinical, regulatory and medical affairs activities.

We expense research and development costs to operations as incurred. We recognize costs for certain development activities, such as clinical trials, based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using data such as patient enrollment, clinical site activations or information provided to us by our vendors.

We track external development expenses and personnel expense on a program-by-program basis and allocate common expenses, such as scientific consultants and laboratory supplies, to each program based on the personnel resources allocated to such program. Expenses related to facilities, consulting, travel, conferences, stock-based compensation and depreciation are not allocated to a program and are separately classified as other research and development expenses. The following table summarizes our research and development expenses on a program-specific basis for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Eravacycline

 

$

11,259

 

 

$

20,431

 

BARDA Contract

 

 

410

 

 

 

419

 

NIAID Contract and NIAID Grant

 

 

693

 

 

 

901

 

CARB-X Award

 

 

694

 

 

 

 

TP-6076

 

 

544

 

 

 

730

 

Other development programs

 

 

471

 

 

 

275

 

Other research and development

 

 

4,056

 

 

 

3,191

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

18,127

 

 

$

25,947

 

 

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials.

As of March 31, 2018, we had incurred an aggregate of $268.0 million in research and development expenses related to the development of eravacycline, and $37.1 million in research and development expenses related to the development of eravacycline that were funded under the BARDA Contract. We expect that our research and development expenses will decrease as we complete the IGNITE program for eravacycline.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development, however, we cannot determine with certainty the duration and completion costs of current or future clinical trials of eravacycline or our other product candidates. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for eravacycline or any of our other product candidates. The duration, costs and timing of clinical trials and development of our product candidates will depend on a variety of factors, including the uncertainties of future clinical and preclinical studies, uncertainties in clinical trial enrollment rate and significant and changing government regulation. In addition, the probability of success for each product candidate will depend on numerous factors, including competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability.

 

19


 

We have licensed our proprietary chemistry technology from Harvard on an exclusive worldwide basis under a license agreement that we entered into in August 2006. Under our license agreement, we have paid Harvard an aggregate of $9.1 million in upfront license fees, and development and regulatory milestone payments. We have also issued 31,379 shares of our common stock to Harvard under the license agreement. In addition, we have agreed to make payments to Harvard upon the achievement of specified future development and regulatory milestones totaling up to $15.1 million for each licensed product candidate ($7.8 million of which has already been paid with respect to eravacycline), and to pay tiered royalties in the single digits based on annual worldwide net sales, if any, of licensed products, our affiliates and our sublicensees. We are also obligated to pay Harvard a specified share of non-royalty sublicensing revenues that we receive from sublicensees for the grant of sublicenses under the license and to reimburse Harvard for specified patent prosecution and maintenance costs. The next milestone payments due under the license agreement with respect to eravacycline total an aggregate of $6.2 million upon approval of eravacycline by the FDA and EMA and a payment due under our license agreement with Everest Medicines Limited, or Everest Medicines.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist principally of personnel-related costs, including salaries and related costs such as benefits and stock-based compensation for personnel in executive, finance, legal, operational, corporate communications, marketing and human resource functions. Other significant general and administrative expenses include professional fees for legal, patent, auditing and tax services, consulting and facility costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase for a number of reasons, including:

 

support of our anticipated research and development activities as we continue the development of our product candidates;

 

expansion of infrastructure, including increases in personnel-related costs, consulting, legal, accounting and investor relations costs, and directors and officers insurance premiums; and

 

if and when we believe a regulatory approval of our first product candidate appears likely, anticipated increases in our personnel-related and consulting costs as a result of our preparation for commercial operations, especially as it relates to the sales and marketing of our product candidates.

Other Income

Other income consists primarily of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our financial statements. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to revenue recognition, accrued clinical expenses, and stock-based compensation. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events and various other factors that we and our management believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes all existing revenue recognition requirements, including most industry-specific guidance. The new standard requires a company to recognize revenue when it transfers goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that the company expects to receive for those goods or services. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date, which delayed the effective date of the new standard from January 1, 2017 to January 1, 2018. The FASB also agreed to allow entities to choose to adopt the standard as of the original effective date. The FASB has subsequently issued ASU 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net); ASU 2016-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing; ASU 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients; and ASU 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

We have concluded that our grants are not within the scope of Topic 606, as they do not meet the definition of a contract with a “customer”. We have concluded that the Grants meet the definition of a contribution and are non-reciprocal transactions. We have

 

20


 

further concluded that Subtopic 958-605, Not-for-Profit-Entities-Revenue Recognition also does not apply, as we are a business entity and the grants are with governmental agencies or units. The government grants are technically to a non-profit entity that specializes in government grant administration, project management and oversight (i.e. CUBRC). However, we have concluded that, in effect, it is a grant from the government; as the contracting counterparty CUBRC is merely administering the agreement between the government (who is funding the work) and us (who are performing the work).  

In the absence of applicable guidance under US GAAP as of January 1, 2018 for the grants, we have developed a policy for the recognition of revenue for the grants as follows:

 

Revenue is recognized when the right to payment is realized or is realizable

 

Revenues are realized when services are exchanged for cash or claims to cash. Revenues are not recognized until earned.

 

Our revenue-earning activities involve rendering services that constitute our ongoing major or central operations, and revenues are considered to have been earned when we have substantially accomplished what we must do to be entitled to the benefits represented by the revenues.

We believe this policy is consistent with the overarching premise in Topic 606, to ensure that we recognize revenues to reflect the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services, even though there is no “exchange” as defined in the ASC. We believe the recognition of revenue as costs are incurred and amounts become earned/realizable is analogous to the concept of transfer of control of a service over time under ASC 606.

Prior to January 1, 2018, we recognized revenue as we performed services under the grants so long as an agreement had been executed and the fees for these services were fixed or determinable, legally billable and reasonably assured of collection. Recognized amounts reflected our partial performance under the grants and equal direct and indirect costs incurred plus fixed fees, where applicable. Revenues and expenses under these arrangements were presented gross. Revenue recognition under this new policy is not materially different than would have been calculated under the old guidance. As a result of adoption of this policy, there was no change to the amounts we have historically recorded to our financial statements.

Out-Licensing Revenue Recognition

We entered into an out-licensing agreement that is evaluated under Topic 606, through which we license certain of our product candidates’ rights to a third party. Any future out-license agreement entered into by us and additional third parties shall also be evaluated under Topic 606. Terms of these arrangements include various payment types, typically including one or more of the following: up-front license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; payments for manufacturing supply services; and/or royalties on net sales of licensed products.

To determine the amount and timing of revenue to be recognized under each agreement, we evaluate the following criteria: (i) confirming the goods or services in the contract; (ii) defining the performance obligations under the agreement; (iii) determining the transaction price, including any constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) defining how the revenue will be recognized for each performance obligation. In determining the accounting treatment for these arrangements, we develop assumptions to determine the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation in the contract. These assumptions may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success.

Licenses of Intellectual Property: If the license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize revenue from up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee, including any associated know-how and the licensee can use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other obligations, we use judgment to evaluate the combined performance obligation to determine whether it is satisfied over time or at a point in time and the appropriate method of measuring completion for purposes of recognizing revenue.  

Milestone Payments: For arrangements that include development milestone payments, we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our control or the licensee’s control, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received.  

 

21


 

Manufacturing Supply: Arrangements that include a promise for future supply of drug substance or drug product for either clinical development or commercial supply at the licensee’s discretion are generally considered as options. We assess if these options provide a material right to the licensee and if so, they are accounted for as separate performance obligations. If we are entitled to additional payments when the licensee exercises these options, we recognize revenue when the licensee obtains control of the goods, which is upon delivery.

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).  

There have been no other significant changes to our critical accounting policies since the beginning of this fiscal year. Our critical accounting policies are described under Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our annual report, filed on form 10-K with the SEC on March 6, 2018 for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

The following table summarizes the results of our operations for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

Increase/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

(decrease)

 

 

%

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenues

 

$

1,891

 

 

$

1,485

 

 

$

406

 

 

 

27

%

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

18,127

 

 

 

25,947

 

 

 

(7,820

)

 

 

(30

)%

General and administrative

 

 

5,705

 

 

 

5,133

 

 

 

572

 

 

 

11

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

23,832

 

 

 

31,080

 

 

 

(7,248

)

 

 

(23

)%

Loss from operations

 

 

(21,941

)

 

 

(29,595

)

 

 

7,654

 

 

 

(26

)%

Other income

 

 

365

 

 

 

137

 

 

 

228

 

 

 

166

%

Net loss

 

$

(21,576

)

 

$

(29,458

)

 

$

7,882

 

 

 

(27

)%

 

Revenue from U.S. Government Contracts and Grants

The following table sets forth our contract and grant revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

Increase/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

(decrease)

 

 

%

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CARB-X Award

 

$

738

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

738

 

 

n/a

 

NIAID Contract

 

 

733

 

 

 

1,015

 

 

 

(282

)

 

 

(28

)%

BARDA Contract

 

 

420

 

 

 

464

 

 

 

(44

)

 

 

(9

)%

NIAID Grant

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

(6

)

 

 

(100

)%

 

 

$

1,891

 

 

$

1,485

 

 

$

406

 

 

 

27

%

Contract and grant revenue was $1.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 compared to $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, an increase of $0.4 million, or 27%. This increase was due to the scope and timing of activities conducted under our subcontract with respect to the CARB-X Award and the BARDA and NIAID Contracts.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2018 were $18.1 million compared to $25.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, a decrease of $7.8 million, or 30%. This decrease was primarily due to lower clinical trial costs associated with conducting our IGNITE3 and IGNITE4 phase 3 clinical trials during the three months ended March 31, 2018 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2017.

 

22


 

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2018 were $5.7 million compared to $5.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017, an increase of $0.6 million, or 11%. This increase was primarily due to an increase in pre-commercialization expenses.

Other Income

The increase in other income for the three months ended March 31, 2018 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2017 was driven by implementation of a new cash sweep account and improved overall yields on our money market funds.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

We have incurred losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur losses for at least the next several years. We expect our total expenses to decrease but remain significant in 2018 and, as a result, we will need additional capital to fund our operations, which we may obtain from additional financings, research funding, collaborations, contract and grant revenue or other sources.

Since our inception, we have funded our operations principally through the receipt of funds from public offerings and private placements of equity securities, debt financings and contract research funding and research grants from the United States government.

As of March 31, 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $117.7 million. We invest cash in excess of immediate requirements in accordance with our investment policy, primarily with a view to liquidity and capital preservation. As of March 31, 2018, our funds were held in cash and money market funds.

On January 17, 2017, we entered into a Controlled Equity Offering Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor, as sales agent. On July 7, 2017, we entered into an amendment to the sales agreement, or the amended sales agreement. In accordance with the terms of the amended sales agreement, we may offer and sell through Cantor, from time to time, shares of our common stock up to an aggregate offering price of $80,000,000 through an “at-the-market” offering program. As of March 31, 2018, we had sold 4,157,873 shares under the agreement at an average price of $7.78 per share and we had received aggregate cash proceeds of $31.1 million, after deducting the sales commissions and offering expenses. Under the amended sales agreement, Cantor may sell shares of our common stock by methods deemed to be an “at-the-market” offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, including sales made directly on The NASDAQ Global Select Market or on any other existing trading market for our common stock. We are not obligated to make any sales of shares of our common stock under the amended sales agreement. We or Cantor may suspend or terminate the offering of shares of our common stock upon notice to the other party and subject to other conditions. We will pay Cantor a commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds per share sold.

On August 2, 2017, we sold 10,000,000 shares of common stock in an underwritten public offering at an offering price to the public of $6.50 per share, resulting in net proceeds to us of $60.7 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $3.9 million and offering costs of $0.4 million. In connection with the offering, we granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional 1,500,000 shares on the same terms and conditions as the offering, pursuant to which the underwriters exercised an option to purchase 107,000 additional shares on August 25, 2017 resulting in additional net proceeds to us of approximately $0.7 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions.

The following table summarizes our sources and uses of cash for each of the periods set forth below (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Cash Flows from Operations:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

$

(18,894

)

 

$

(18,745

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(83

)

 

 

(504

)

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

231

 

 

 

5,322

 

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

(18,746

)

 

$

(13,927

)

 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities. The $0.1 million increase in cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the three months ended March 31, 2017, was primarily due to decreased spending on IGNITE 3 and IGNITE 4 clinical trials offset by $7.0 million upfront payment from Everest Medicines.

 

23


 

Cash Flows from Investing Activities. The $0.4 million decrease in cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the three months ended March 31, 2017, was due to a decrease in purchases of property and equipment related to our research and development activities.

Cash Flows from Financing Activities. The $5.1 million decrease in cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the three months ended March 31, 2017 was primarily due to a decrease in sales of common stock under our amended sales agreement with Cantor.

Operating Capital Requirements

We expect to incur significant operating losses for at least the next several years as we continue development of eravacycline, seek marketing approval for eravacycline, manufacture drug product for our clinical and pre-clinical trials, conduct pre-commercialization and launch-related activities for eravacycline, conduct our phase 1 clinical trial of TP-271in healthy volunteers, and our phase 1 clinical trial of TP-6076 in healthy volunteers and satisfy our obligations under our license agreement with Harvard. We may not be able to complete the development and initiate commercialization of eravacycline or our other product candidates if, among other things, our preclinical research and clinical trials with respect to our other product candidates are not successful, our manufacturing efforts are not successful, the FDA or the EMA does not approve eravacycline or our other product candidates when we expect, or at all.

We believe that our available funds will be sufficient to support our operations through the first half of 2019, which we believe will allow us to fund the initial launch of IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI. We will be required to obtain further funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources to fund our operations including ongoing spending to commercialize eravacycline.

We have based our projections of operating capital requirements on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect and we may use all of our available capital resources sooner than we expect. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with research, development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products, we are unable to estimate the exact amount of our operating capital requirements. Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

 

the outcome, timing and costs of seeking regulatory approvals;

 

costs related to the anticipated commercial launch of eravacycline;

 

revenue received from commercial sales of eravacycline, subject to receipt of marketing approval;

 

the initiation, progress, timing, costs and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for our other product candidates and potential product candidates;

 

the amount of funding that we receive under our subcontracts under the BARDA and NIAID Contracts, and the activities funded under the BARDA Contract, the NIAID Contract and the CARB-X Award;

 

the number and characteristics of product candidates that we pursue;

 

the costs of commercialization activities for other product candidates if we receive marketing approval, including the timing and costs of establishing product sales, marketing, distribution and manufacturing capabilities;

 

the terms and timing of any future collaborations, licensing, consulting or other arrangements that we may establish, as we did with Everest Medicines;

 

the amount and timing of any payments we may be required to make, or that we may receive, in connection with the licensing, filing, prosecution, defense and enforcement of any patents or other intellectual property rights, including milestone and royalty payments and patent prosecution fees that we are obligated to pay to Harvard, pursuant to our license agreement;

 

the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and protecting our intellectual property rights and defending against intellectual property related claims; and

 

the extent to which we in-license or acquire other products and technologies.

We expect that we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in order to commercialize eravacycline. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities, the ownership interests of our existing stockholders may be materially diluted and the terms of these securities could include liquidation or other preferences that could adversely affect the rights of our existing stockholders. In addition, debt financing, if available, would result in increased fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to take

 

24


 

specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends, that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we could be forced to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of eravacycline or other product candidates, seek collaborators at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or on terms that are less favorable than might otherwise be available, and relinquish or license, potentially on unfavorable terms, our rights to eravacycline or other product candidates that we otherwise would seek to develop or commercialize ourselves.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.

Contractual Obligations

During the three months ended March 31, 2018, there were no material changes to our contractual obligations and commitments outside the ordinary course of business from those disclosed in our annual report, filed on form 10-K with the SEC on March 6, 2018 for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Refer to Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

There have not been any material changes to our exposure to market risk during the three months ended March 31, 2018. For additional information regarding market risk, refer to the Qualitative and Quantitative Disclosures About Market Risk section of our annual report.

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our management, with the participation of our chief executive officer and senior vice president, finance, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2018. In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognized that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and our management necessarily applied its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on this evaluation, our chief executive officer and senior vice president, finance concluded that as of March 31, 2018, our disclosure controls and procedures were (1) designed to ensure that material information relating to us is made known to our management including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer by others, particularly during the period in which this quarterly report on Form 10-Q was prepared and (2) effective, in that they provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms.

The certifications of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer attached as Exhibits 31.1 and 31.2 to this report include, in paragraph 4 of such certifications, information concerning our disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the period covered by this quarterly report on Form 10-Q that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

 

 

25


 

part ii – other information

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

We are currently not a party to any material legal proceedings.

Item 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our business faces many risks. We caution you that the following important factors, among others, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and other filings with the SEC, press releases, communications with investors and oral statements. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face. Additional risks we do not yet know of, or which we currently believe are immaterial, may also impair our business operations. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer, and the trading price of our common stock could decline.

Risks Relating to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

We have incurred significant losses since inception, expect to incur losses for at least the next several years and may never achieve or sustain profitability.

We have incurred annual net operating losses in every year since our inception. Our net loss was $21.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018, $114.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, $77.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 and $83.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. As of March 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $483.5 million. We have not generated any product revenues and have financed our operations primarily through the public offering and private placements of our equity securities, debt financings and revenue from U.S. government grants and contract awards. We have not completed development of any product candidate and have devoted substantially all of our financial resources and efforts to research and development, including preclinical and clinical development.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for at least the next several years. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter. Net losses and negative cash flows have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital.

We expect that our expenses will decrease in 2018 compared with 2017, as the completion of the IGNITE clinical program will offset cost increases associated with conducting pre-commercialization activities for eravacycline and, if approved, the launch of eravacycline. If we obtain marketing approval for eravacycline, we do expect to incur significant sales, marketing, distribution and outsourced manufacturing expenses. Our expenses may increase if and as we:

 

maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

 

in-license or acquire other products and technologies; and

 

add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our product development and planned future commercialization efforts.

Our ability to become and remain profitable depends on our ability to generate revenue. We do not expect to generate significant revenue unless and until we obtain marketing approval for, and commercialize, eravacycline, which will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including:

 

obtaining marketing approval for eravacycline;

 

protecting and maintaining our rights to our intellectual property portfolio related to eravacycline;

 

contracting for the manufacture of commercial quantities of eravacycline; and

 

establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities to effectively market and sell eravacycline.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. Our expenses could increase if we are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, to perform clinical trials and non-clinical studies in addition to those that have been conducted or are currently expected, or if there are any delays in the development of any of our product candidates or the manufacture of any of our product candidates.

 

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We may be unable to develop and commercialize eravacycline or any other product candidate and, even if we do, may never achieve profitability. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could cause our stockholders to lose all or part of their investment in us.

We expect that we will need additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development programs or commercialization efforts.

Developing pharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies, clinical trials and manufacturing activities, is a time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. We expect that our expenses will decrease in 2018 compared with 2017, as the completion of the IGNITE clinical program will offset cost increases associated with conducting pre-commercialization activities for eravacycline and, if approved, the launch of eravacycline. If we obtain marketing approval for eravacycline, we do expect to incur significant sales, marketing, distribution and outsourced manufacturing expenses.

We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditures, potentially obtain regulatory approvals in the United States and Europe for IV eravacycline for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections, or cIAI, and to perform pre-commercialization activities and commercially launch eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI, if approved. It is also possible that we will not achieve the progress that we expect with respect to eravacycline because the actual costs and timing of regulatory activities are difficult to predict and are subject to substantial risks and delays. As a result, we will be required to obtain further funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources.

These estimates are based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Changing circumstances could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more money than currently expected because of circumstances beyond our control.

Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Our failure to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy.

Our future funding requirements, both short-term and long-term, will depend on many factors, including:

 

the outcome, timing and costs of seeking regulatory approvals generally;

 

the costs of commercialization activities for eravacycline and other product candidates if we receive marketing approval, including the timing and costs of establishing product sales, marketing, distribution and manufacturing capabilities;

 

the timing and costs of manufacturing activities in anticipation of commercial launch of eravacycline;

 

the timing and costs of our ongoing clinical trials for our product candidates;

 

the amount of funding that we receive under our subcontracts awarded to us by our collaborator CUBRC, Inc., or CUBRC, under its government contracts with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, or BARDA, and with the National Institutes of Health’s, or NIH’s, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, or NIAID, and under our subaward from CUBRC under its grant from NIAID, and our award from the Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator, or CARB-X, and the activities funded under these contracts;

 

the number and characteristics of product candidates that we pursue;

 

the timing and costs of developing eravacycline for additional indications;

 

revenue received from commercial sales of eravacycline, subject to receipt of marketing approval;

 

the terms and timing of any future collaborations, partnerships, licensing, marketing, distribution or other arrangements that we may establish;

 

the amount and timing of any payments we may be required to make, or that we may receive, in connection with the licensing, filing, prosecution, defense and enforcement of any patents or other intellectual property rights, including milestone and royalty payments and patent prosecution fees that we are obligated to pay to Harvard University, or Harvard, pursuant to our license agreement;

 

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the costs of maintaining and protecting our intellectual property rights and defending against intellectual property related claims; and

 

the extent to which we in-license or acquire other products and technologies.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

Currently, our only external source of funds is funding under subcontracts awarded to us by CUBRC pursuant to government contracts from BARDA and NIAID, and an award from CARB-X. Although the BARDA contract and our subcontract with CUBRC under the BARDA contract have terms which currently expire on September 30, 2018, BARDA is entitled to terminate the project for convenience at any time, and is not obligated to provide continued funding beyond current-year amounts from congressionally approved annual appropriations. To the extent that BARDA ceases to provide funding of the program to CUBRC, CUBRC has the right to cease providing funding to us. Committed funding from CUBRC under our BARDA subcontract is for up to approximately $41.8 million from the initial contract date through September 30, 2018, of which $37.5 million had been received through March 31, 2018.

Similarly, although the NIAID contract and our subcontract with CUBRC under the NIAID contract have terms which currently expire on March 31, 2019, NIAID is entitled to terminate the project for convenience at any time, and is not obligated to provide continued funding beyond March 31, 2019. To the extent NIAID ceases to provide funding of the programs to CUBRC, CUBRC has the right to cease providing funding to us. Committed funding from CUBRC under our subcontract with respect to the NIAID contract is for up to $16.9 million, of which $14.2 million had been received through March 31, 2018.

Similarly, although the CARB-X Award has a term which currently expires on December 31, 2018, CARB-X is entitled to terminate the project for convenience at any time. Committed funding from the CARB-X Award is for up to $4.0 million from the initial award date through December 31, 2018, of which $0.4 million had been received through March 31, 2018.

As a result, unless and until we can generate a substantial amount of revenue from our product candidates, we expect to finance our future cash needs through public or private equity offerings, debt financings or collaborations and licensing arrangements. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe that we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities, the ownership interest of our stockholders may be materially diluted, and the terms of these securities could include liquidation or other preferences and anti-dilution protections that could adversely affect their rights. In addition, debt financing, if available, would result in increased fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to take specific corporate actions, such as incurring additional debt, merging with or acquiring another entity, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends, that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. In addition, securing additional financing would require a substantial amount of time and attention from our management and may divert a disproportionate amount of their attention away from day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our management’s ability to oversee the development of our product candidates.

If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.

We have a limited operating history and no history of commercializing pharmaceutical products, which may make it difficult to evaluate the prospects for our future viability.

We began operations in the third quarter of 2006. Our operations to date have been limited to financing and staffing our company, developing our technology and developing eravacycline and other product candidates. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to obtain marketing approval, manufacture a commercial-scale product, or arrange for a third-party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Consequently, predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or a history of successfully developing and commercializing pharmaceutical products.

 

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Risks Related to Product Development and Commercialization

We are dependent on the success of our lead product candidate, eravacycline, and our ability to develop, obtain marketing approval for and successfully commercialize eravacycline. If we are unable to develop, obtain marketing approval for and successfully commercialize eravacycline or experience significant delays in doing so, our business could be materially harmed.

We currently have no products approved for sale and have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the development of eravacycline for use as a first-line empiric monotherapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections. Specifically, we were developing eravacyline for the treatment of both cIAI and cUTI. We have conducted four phase 3 clinical trials – IGNITE1 and IGNITE4 for the treatment of cIAI and IGNITE2 and IGNITE3 for the treatment of cUTI. We submitted a new drug application, or NDA, to the FDA for IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI and a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the EMA for IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI. In February 2018, we announced top-line data from IGNITE3, our phase 3 clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of eravacycline with IV administration for the treatment of cUTI. IGNITE3 failed to meet the co-primary efficacy endpoints. As a result, we are no longer developing eravacycline for the treatment of cUTI.

Our prospects are substantially dependent on our ability to develop, obtain marketing approval for and successfully commercialize eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI. The success of eravacycline will depend on several factors, including the following:

 

successful outcome of discussions with regulatory agencies regarding our planned marketing applications;

 

receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

 

establishment of arrangements with third-party manufacturers to obtain manufacturing supply;

 

obtainment and maintenance of patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity;

 

protection of our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;

 

successful manufacturing of commercial-scale batches of eravacycline;

 

commercial launch of eravacycline, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;

 

acceptance of eravacycline, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;

 

favorable results of any additional clinical trials involving eravacycline that we may conduct;

 

competition with other therapies; and

 

a continued acceptable safety profile of eravacycline following approval.

If we are unable to develop, receive marketing approval for, or successfully commercialize eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI, or experience delays as a result of any of these matters or otherwise, our business could be materially harmed.

If clinical trials of eravacycline or of any other product candidate that we advance to clinical trials fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities or do not otherwise produce favorable results, we may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of eravacycline or any other product candidate.

We are not permitted to commercialize, market, promote, or sell any product candidate in the United States without obtaining marketing approval from the FDA or in other countries without obtaining approvals from comparable foreign regulatory authorities, such as the EMA, and we may never receive such approvals. We must complete extensive preclinical development and clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates in humans before we will be able to obtain these approvals. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is inherently uncertain as to outcome. We have not previously submitted an NDA to the FDA, an MAA to the EMA or similar drug approval filings to comparable foreign regulatory authorities for any of our product candidates.

The clinical development of eravacycline and other product candidates is susceptible to the risk of failure inherent at any stage of drug development, including failure to achieve efficacy in a trial or across a broad population of patients, the occurrence of severe adverse events, failure to comply with protocols or applicable regulatory requirements, and determination by the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority that a drug product is not approvable. The outcome of preclinical studies and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. For example, although eravacycline achieved favorable results in the lead-in part of IGNITE2, the pivotal portion of IGNITE2 did not meet the primary endpoint of statistical non-inferiority compared to levofloxacin. In July 2017 we announced positive top line

 

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data from IGNITE4. Further, in the first quarter of 2018 we reported top-line data for our IGNITE3 phase 3 clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of eravacycline with IV administration for the treatment of cUTI. IGNITE3 failed to meet the co-primary efficacy endpoints of responder rate (a combination of clinical cure and microbiological success) in the microbiological intent-to-treat population at the end-of-IV treatment visit and at the test-of-cure visit, which were evaluated using a 10% non-inferiority margin. We may fail to achieve success in any other future clinical trial of any other product candidate.

In addition, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses. Many companies that believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval for the product candidates. Even if we believe that the results of our clinical trials warrant marketing approval, the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree and may not grant marketing approval of our product candidates.

In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety and/or efficacy results between different trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial procedures set forth in protocols, differences in the size and type of the patient populations, adherence to the dosing regimen and other trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. In addition, in the case of our clinical trials, results may differ on the basis of the type of bacteria with which patients are infected. We cannot be certain that other clinical trials that we may conduct will demonstrate consistent or adequate efficacy and safety to obtain regulatory approval to market our product candidates.

We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent us from obtaining regulatory approval for eravacycline or any of our other product candidates, including:

 

clinical trials of our product candidates may produce unfavorable or inconclusive results;

 

we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs;

 

the number of patients required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;

 

our third-party contractors, including those manufacturing our product candidates or conducting clinical trials on our behalf, may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;

 

regulators or institutional review boards may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;

 

we may have to suspend or terminate clinical trials of our product candidates for various reasons, including a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks, undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics of the product candidate;

 

regulators or institutional review boards may require that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks, undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics of the product candidate;

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we enter into agreement for clinical and commercial supplies;

 

the supply or quality of our product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates may be insufficient or inadequate; and

 

the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of eravacycline, or any other product candidate that we develop beyond the trials and testing that we contemplate; if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our product candidates or other testing; if the results of these trials or tests are unfavorable or are only modestly favorable or if there are safety concerns associated with eravacycline or our other product candidates, we may:

 

be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our product candidates;

 

not obtain marketing approval at all;

 

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obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;

 

obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or significant safety warnings, including boxed warnings;

 

be subject to additional post-marketing testing or other requirements; or

 

remove the product from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

Our product development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or marketing approvals and we may be required to obtain additional funds to complete clinical trials. We cannot be certain that our clinical trials will begin as planned or be completed on schedule, if at all, or that we will not need to restructure our trials after they have begun. Significant clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates, which may harm our business and results of operations. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, clinical trial delays may ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of eravacycline or any other product candidate.

If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for any other product candidate that we develop if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in clinical trials for such other product candidate as required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, such as the EMA. Patient enrollment is a significant factor in the timing of clinical trials, and is affected by many factors, including:

 

the size and nature of the patient population;

 

the severity of the disease under investigation;

 

the proximity of patients to clinical sites;

 

the eligibility criteria for the trial;

 

the design of the clinical trial; and

 

competing clinical trials and clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages and risks of the drug being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating.

 

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Serious adverse events or undesirable side effects or other unexpected properties of eravacycline or any other product candidate may be identified during development or after approval, if obtained, that could delay, prevent or cause the withdrawal of the product candidates’ regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if obtained.

Serious adverse events or undesirable side effects caused by, or other unexpected properties of, our product candidates could cause us, an institutional review board, or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt our clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label, the imposition of distribution or use restrictions or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. If eravacycline or any of our other product candidates are associated with serious adverse events or undesirable side effects or have properties that are unexpected, we may need to abandon their development or limit development to certain uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Many compounds that initially showed promise in clinical or earlier stage testing have later been found to cause undesirable or unexpected side effects that prevented further development of the compound. In our clinical trials of eravacycline, some treatment-related adverse events have been reported. The most common treatment-related adverse events observed in clinical trials of eravacycline have been nausea and emesis. Additional adverse events, undesirable side effects or other unexpected properties of eravacycline or any of our other product candidates could arise or become known either during clinical development or, if approved, after the approved product has been marketed. If such an event occurs during development, our trials could be suspended or terminated, and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of, or deny approval of, eravacycline or our other product candidates. If such an event occurs after eravacycline or such other product candidates are approved, a number of potentially significant negative consequences may result, including:

 

regulatory authorities may withdraw the approval of such product;

 

regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label or impose distribution or use restrictions;

 

regulatory authorities may require one or more postmarketing studies;

 

we may be required to create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

 

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and

 

our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product candidate, if approved, or could substantially increase commercialization costs and expenses, which could delay or prevent us from generating revenues from the sale of our products and harm our business and results of operations.

Even if eravacycline or any other product candidate that we develop receives marketing approval, it may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success and the market opportunity for eravacycline or other product candidates may be smaller than we estimate.

We have never commercialized a product candidate for any indication. Efforts to educate the medical community and third-party payors on the benefits of our product candidates may require significant resources and may not be successful. If physicians, rightly or wrongly, associate our product candidates with antibiotic resistance issues of other products of the same class, physicians might not prescribe our product candidates for treating a broad range of infections. If eravacycline or any other product candidate that we develop does not achieve an adequate level of market acceptance, we may not generate significant product revenues and, therefore, we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of eravacycline, if approved, or any other product candidate that is approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to:

 

the efficacy and safety of the product;

 

the potential advantages of the product compared to alternative treatments, including convenience and ease of administration;

 

the prevalence and severity of any side effects;

 

the clinical indications for which the product is approved;

 

limitations or warnings, including distribution or use restrictions, contained in the product’s approved labeling or an approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy;

 

our ability to offer the product for sale at competitive prices;

 

the willingness of the target patient population to try, and of physicians to prescribe, the product;

 

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whether the product is designated under physician treatment guidelines as a first-line therapy or as a second- or third-line therapy for particular infections;

 

the strength of marketing and distribution support;

 

the approval of other new products for the same indications;

 

the timing of market introduction of our approved products as well as competitive products;

 

the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments;

 

availability and level of coverage and amount of reimbursement from government payors, managed care plans and other third-party payors;

 

the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts;

 

adverse publicity about the product or favorable publicity about competitive products; and

 

the development of resistance by bacterial strains to the product.

In addition, the potential market opportunity for eravacycline is difficult to estimate. Our estimates of the potential market opportunity are predicated on several key assumptions such as industry knowledge, third-party research reports and other surveys. While we believe that our internal assumptions are reasonable, these assumptions involve the exercise of significant judgment on the part of our management, are inherently uncertain and the reasonableness of these assumptions has not been assessed by an independent source. If any of the assumptions proves to be inaccurate, then the actual market for eravacycline could be smaller than our estimates of the potential market opportunity. If the actual market for eravacycline is smaller than we expect, or if the product fails to achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, health care payors and patients, our product revenue may be limited, and it may be more difficult for us to achieve or maintain profitability.

If we are unable to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities or enter into sales, marketing and distribution agreements with third parties, we may not be successful in commercializing eravacycline or such other product candidates that we develop if and when eravacycline or any other product candidates are approved.

We currently do not have a sales, marketing or distribution infrastructure and as a company have little experience in the sales, marketing, or distribution of pharmaceutical products. To achieve commercial success for any approved product, we must either develop a sales and marketing organization or outsource these functions to third parties. We intend to develop and build a commercial organization in the United States and recruit experienced sales, marketing and distribution professionals, which will require substantial resources, will be time-consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a product candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing and distribution capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization costs. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel. In addition, we may not be able to hire a sales force in the United States that is sufficient in size or has adequate expertise in the medical markets we intend to target. If we are unable to establish a sales force and marketing and distribution capabilities, our operating results may be adversely affected.

Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our products on our own include:

 

our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;

 

the ability of sales personnel to obtain access to or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future products;

 

the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and

 

unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.

We plan to commercialize eravacycline outside the United States with the assistance of collaborators. As a result of entering into arrangements with third parties to perform sales, marketing and distribution services, our product revenues or the profitability of these product revenues to us may be lower than if we were to directly market and sell products in those markets. As an example, if Everest Medicines is unsuccessful in developing eravacycline in the Chinese market, we may not receive any future milestone or royalty payments. Furthermore, we may be unsuccessful in entering into the necessary arrangements with third parties or may be unable to do so on terms that are favorable to us. In addition, we likely will have little control over such third parties, and any of them may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our products effectively.

 

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If we do not establish sales and marketing capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing our product candidates.

We face substantial competition from other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and our operating results may suffer if we fail to compete effectively.

The development and commercialization of new drug products is highly competitive. We face competition from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide with respect to eravacycline and our other product candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future. There are a number of large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that currently market and sell products, or are pursuing the development of product candidates, for the treatment of multi-drug resistant infections. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations. Our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or licensing technologies and drug products that are more effective or less costly than any product candidates that we are currently developing or that we may develop, which could render our product candidates obsolete or noncompetitive.

There are a variety of available therapies marketed for the treatment of resistant or even multidrug-resistant infections that we would expect would compete with eravacycline, including meropenem/vaborbactam, which is being marketed by Melinta Therapeutics as Vabomere; ceftazidime/avibactam, which is marketed by Allergan, Inc. as Avycaz; meropenem, which is marketed by AstraZeneca as Merrem; ceftolozane/tazobactam, imipenem/cilastatin, and ertapenem which are marketed by Merck & Co., Inc. as Zerbaxa, Primaxin and Invanz, respectively; tigecycline, which is marketed by Pfizer, Inc. as Tygacil; and piperacillin/tazobactam, which is marketed by Pfizer, Inc. as Zosyn. Many of the available therapies are well established and widely accepted by physicians, patients and third-party payors. Insurers and other third-party payors may also encourage the use of generic products. If eravacycline is approved, it may be priced at a significant premium over other competitive products. This may make it difficult for eravacycline to compete with these products.

There are also a number of products currently in phase 3 development by third parties to treat multidrug-resistant infections, including plazomicin, which is being developed by Achaogen, Inc.; imipenem/relebactam, which is being developed by Merck & Co., Inc.; and cefiderocol, which is being developed by Shionogi. Some of these companies may obtain marketing approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for their product candidates more rapidly than we do, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market.

Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials and obtaining regulatory approvals than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller and other early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

In July 2012, the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act was passed, which included the GAIN Act. The GAIN Act is intended to provide incentives for the development of new, qualified infectious disease products. These incentives may result in more competition in the market for new antibiotics, and may cause pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with more resources than we have to shift their efforts towards the development of products that could be competitive with eravacycline and our other product candidates.

Even if we are able to commercialize eravacycline or any other product candidate that we develop, the product may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party payor coverage and reimbursement policies or healthcare reform initiatives that could harm our business.

Marketing approvals, pricing, coverage and reimbursement for new drug products vary widely from country to country. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a product in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy time periods, which may negatively impact the revenues we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more product candidates, even if our product candidates obtain marketing approval.

 

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Our ability to commercialize eravacycline or any other product candidate will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government authorities, private health insurers, health maintenance organizations and other third-party payors. The healthcare industry is acutely focused on cost containment, both in the United States and elsewhere. As a result, government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications, which could affect our ability to sell our product candidates profitably.

There may also be delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the indications for which the drug is approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring higher levels of evidence of the benefits and clinical outcomes of new technologies and are challenging the prices charged. Moreover, obtaining coverage does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Reimbursement rates may vary, by way of example, according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used. Reimbursement rates may also be based in part on existing reimbursement amounts for lower cost drugs or may be bundled into the payments for other services.

We cannot be sure that coverage will be available for eravacycline or any other product candidate that we commercialize and, if available, that the reimbursement rates will be adequate. Further, the net reimbursement for drug products may be subject to additional reductions if there are changes to laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. An inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate payment rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved products that we develop could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition.

Product liability lawsuits against us could divert our resources, cause us to incur substantial liabilities and limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

We face an inherent risk of product liability claims as a result of the clinical testing of our product candidates despite obtaining appropriate informed consents from our clinical trial participants. We will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell eravacycline or any other product candidate that we develop. For example, we may be sued if any product we develop allegedly causes injury or is found to be otherwise unsuitable during clinical testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability or a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

reduced resources of our management to pursue our business strategy;

 

decreased demand for our product candidates or products that we may develop;

 

injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;

 

withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

initiation of investigations by regulators;

 

product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

 

significant costs to defend resulting litigation;

 

substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;

 

loss of revenue; and

 

the inability to commercialize any products that we may develop.

Although we maintain general liability insurance of $6 million in the aggregate and clinical trial liability insurance of $6 million in the aggregate for all product candidates, this insurance may not fully cover potential liabilities that we may incur. The cost of any product liability litigation or other proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial. We will need to increase our insurance coverage if and when we begin selling eravacycline or any other product candidate that receives marketing approval. In addition, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive. If we are unable to obtain or maintain sufficient insurance coverage at an acceptable cost or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims, it could prevent or inhibit the development and commercial production and sale of our product candidates, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and prospects.

 

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If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. From time to time, and in the future, our operations may involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials, and may also produce hazardous waste products. Even if we contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination or injury resulting from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties for failure to comply with such laws and regulations.

We maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, but this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. However, we do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. Current or future environmental laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. In addition, failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

Our research and development efforts may not result in additional drug candidates being discovered on anticipated timelines, which could limit our ability to generate revenues.

Some of our research and development programs are at preclinical stages. Additional drug candidates that we may develop or acquire will require significant commitment of resources. We cannot predict whether our research will lead to the discovery and development of any additional drug candidates that could generate revenues for us.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We expect to depend on collaborations with third parties for the development and commercialization of some of our product candidates. Our prospects with respect to those product candidates will depend in part on the success of those collaborations.

Although we expect to commercialize eravacycline ourselves in the United States, we intend to seek to commercialize eravacycline outside the United States through collaboration arrangements. For instance, in February 2018, we entered into a license agreement with Everest Medicines Limited whereby we granted Everest Medicines an exclusive license to develop and commercialize eravacycline for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and other indications, in mainland China and several other Asian territories and countries. In addition, we may seek third-party collaborators for development and commercialization of other product candidates. Our likely collaborators for any marketing, distribution, development, licensing or broader collaboration arrangements include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, regional and national pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. We are not currently party to any such arrangements.

We may derive revenue from research and development fees, license fees, milestone payments and royalties under any collaborative arrangement into which we enter. Our ability to generate revenues from these arrangements will depend on our collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. In addition, our collaborators may have the right to abandon research or development projects and terminate applicable agreements, including funding obligations, prior to or upon the expiration of the agreed upon terms. As a result, we can expect to relinquish some or all of the control over the future success of a product candidate that we license to a third-party.

Collaborations involving our product candidates, such as our license arrangement with Everest Medicines, may pose a number of risks, including the following:

 

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;

 

collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected or in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements;

 

collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of our product candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the

 

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collaborators’ strategic focus or available funding, or external factors, such as an acquisition, that divert resources or create competing priorities;

 

collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;

 

product candidates discovered in collaboration with us may be viewed by our collaborators as competitive with their own product candidates or products, which may cause collaborators to cease to devote resources to the commercialization of our product candidates;

 

collaborators with marketing and distribution rights to one or more products may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product or products;

 

disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation or the preferred course of development, might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of product candidates, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to product candidates, or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time-consuming and expensive;

 

collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;

 

collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability; and

 

collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidates.

Collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of product candidates in the most efficient manner or at all. If a collaborator of ours is involved in a business combination, it could decide to delay, diminish or terminate the development or commercialization of any product candidate licensed to it by us.

We may have to alter our development and commercialization plans if we are not able to establish collaborations.

We will require additional funds to complete the development and potential commercialization of eravacycline and our other product candidates. For some of our product candidates, we may decide to collaborate with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for the development and potential commercialization of those product candidates. For example, we intend to utilize a variety of types of collaboration arrangements for commercialization of eravacycline outside the United States. Our ability to enter into any such collaboration may be significantly delayed, or the terms on which we enter into collaborations may be adversely affected, due to the unfavorable results of IGNITE3 for cUTI.

We face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Whether we reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. Those factors may include:

 

the design or results of clinical trials, such as the negative results of our clinical trials of eravacycline for the treatment of cUTI;

 

the likelihood of approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities;

 

the potential market for the subject product candidate;

 

the costs and complexities of manufacturing and delivering such product candidate to patients;

 

the potential for competing products;

 

our patent position protecting the product candidate, including any uncertainty with respect to our ownership of our technology or our licensor’s ownership of technology we license from them, which can exist if there is a challenge to such ownership without regard to the merits of the challenge;

 

the need to seek licenses or sub-licenses to third-party intellectual property; and

 

general industry and market conditions.

 

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A collaborator may also consider alternative product candidates or technologies for similar indications that may be available for collaboration and whether such collaboration could be more attractive than the one with us for our product candidate. We may also be restricted under future license agreements from entering into agreements on certain terms with potential collaborators. In addition, there have been a significant number of recent business combinations among large pharmaceutical companies that have resulted in a reduced number of potential future collaborators.

If we are unable to reach agreements with suitable collaborators on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to curtail the development of a product candidate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to fund and undertake development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional expertise and additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we fail to enter into collaborations and do not have sufficient funds or expertise to undertake the necessary development and commercialization activities, we may not be able to further develop our product candidates or bring them to market and our business may be materially and adversely affected.

We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials. If they do not perform satisfactorily, our business may be materially harmed.

We do not independently conduct clinical trials of eravacycline. We rely on third parties, such as contract research organizations, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions and clinical investigators, to conduct our clinical trials. Any of these third parties may terminate their engagements with us at any time. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements, it would delay our product development activities.

Our reliance on these third parties for clinical development activities limits our control over these activities but we remain responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards. For example, notwithstanding the obligations of a contract research organization for a trial of one of our product candidates, we remain responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. Moreover, the FDA requires us to comply with standards, commonly referred to as current Good Clinical Practices, or cGCPs, for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. The FDA enforces these cGCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators, clinical trial sites and institutional review boards. If we or our third-party contractors fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our product candidates, which would delay the regulatory approval process. We cannot be certain that, upon inspection, the FDA will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with cGCPs. We are also required to register clinical trials and post the results of completed clinical trials on a government-sponsored database, ClinicalTrials.gov, within certain timeframes. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity and civil and criminal sanctions.

Furthermore, the third parties conducting clinical trials on our behalf are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such contractors, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our ongoing development programs. These contractors may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other drug development activities, which could impede their ability to devote appropriate time to our clinical programs. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we may not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for our product candidates. If that occurs, we will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our product candidates. In such an event, our financial results and the commercial prospects for eravacycline or any other product candidates that we seek to develop could be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed, impaired or foreclosed.

We also rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug supplies for our clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our product candidates or commercialization of any resulting products, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.

 

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We contract with third parties for the manufacture of eravacycline for clinical trials and expect to continue to do so in connection with the commercialization of eravacycline and for clinical trials and commercialization of any other product candidates that we develop. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our product candidates or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We do not currently have nor do we plan to build the internal infrastructure or capability to manufacture eravacycline or our other product candidates for use in the conduct of our clinical trials or for commercial supply. We currently rely on and expect to continue to rely on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture clinical supplies of eravacycline and our other product candidates, and we have relied and expect to continue to rely on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture registration batches and commercial quantities of any product candidate that we commercialize following approval for marketing by applicable regulatory authorities. Reliance on third-party manufacturers entails risks, including:

 

delays in the manufacture of our clinical drug supply, registration and validation batches and commercial supply if our third-party manufacturers give greater priority to the supply of other products over our product candidates or otherwise do not satisfactorily perform according to the terms of the agreement between us;