Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals
TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS INC (Form: 424B5, Received: 07/07/2017 16:43:31)
Table of Contents

As Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration No. 333-214500

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus Dated December 7, 2016)

 

LOGO

Up to $40,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

On July 7, 2017, we entered into an amendment to our Controlled Equity Offering SM sales agreement, dated as of January 17, 2017, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald. Under the amendment, we increased the maximum aggregate offering price of the shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, that we may issue and sell from time to time under the sales agreement from $40,000,000 to $80,000,000. This prospectus supplement only relates to such additional shares of common stock.

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “TTPH.” On July 6, 2017, the closing sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market was $7.15 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through The NASDAQ Global Select Market or on any other existing trading market for our common stock. Cantor Fitzgerald has agreed to act as sales agent on a best efforts basis and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cantor Fitzgerald and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Cantor Fitzgerald will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-12 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Cantor Fitzgerald. In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf, Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Please read the information contained in and incorporated by reference under the heading “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed on the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

LOGO

The date of this prospectus supplement is July 7, 2017.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-1  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-2  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-3  

RISK FACTORS

     S-6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-8  

DILUTION

     S-9  

PRICE RANGE OF COMMON STOCK

     S-10  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-11  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-12  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-13  

EXPERTS

     S-13  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-13  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     S-14  

PROSPECTUS

  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     1  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

     4  

CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     19  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     20  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     22  

LEGAL MATTERS

     24  

EXPERTS

     24  


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference therein filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreement, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

We have not and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, has not authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, in the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and Cantor Fitzgerald take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction to or from any person to whom or from whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation of an offer in such jurisdiction. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus.

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or Cantor Fitzgerald that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, all references in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Tetraphase,” “the Company” and similar designations refer, collectively, to Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, where appropriate, its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Such forward-looking statements include statements about our plans and strategy for our business, the possible achievement of discovery and development goals and milestones, our future discovery and development efforts, our collaborations, our future operating results and financial position, and other objectives for future operations. We often use words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “target,” “goal,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” and other words and terms of similar meaning to help identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. You also can identify them by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. There are a number of important risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those indicated by forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those inherent in pharmaceutical research and development, such as adverse results in our drug discovery and clinical development activities, decisions made by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory authorities with respect to the development and commercialization of our product candidates, our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights for our drug candidates, competition, our ability to obtain any necessary financing to conduct our planned activities, and other risk factors that are referenced in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the risk factors and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements except to the extent required by law.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the information incorporated herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, including the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and in Part II, Item IA “Risk Factors” of our quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 8, 2017, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company using our proprietary chemistry technology to create novel antibiotics for serious and life-threatening multidrug-resistant infections. We are developing our lead product candidate, eravacycline, a fully-synthetic fluorocycline, as an intravenous, or IV, and oral antibiotic for use as a first-line empiric monotherapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections, including multidrug-resistant, or MDR, Gram-negative infections.

We are conducting a global phase 3 clinical program for eravacycline called IGNITE ( I nvestigating  G ram -N egative

I nfections  T reated with  E ravacycline). We are also pursuing the discovery and development of additional antibiotics that target unmet medical needs, including multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

We are conducting IGNITE4, a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, prospective study that is designed to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of twice-daily eravacycline (1.0 mg/kg every 12 hours) compared with meropenem (1g every 8 hours) for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections, or cIAI. We previously conducted IGNITE1, our completed phase 3 clinical trial where eravacycline met the primary endpoint of statistical non-inferiority compared to ertapenem, the control therapy for the trial, for the treatment of cIAI. Consistent with draft guidance issued by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, with respect to the development of antibiotics for cIAI and our discussions with the FDA, we expect that positive results from our phase 3 clinical trials (IGNITE1 and IGNITE4) would be sufficient to support submission of a new drug application, or NDA, for eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI.

We plan to submit a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the European Medicines Agency for IV eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI. We expect the MAA submission will be supported by data from IGNITE1.

In January 2017, we initiated IGNITE3, a randomized, multi-center, double-blind, phase 3 clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of once-daily IV eravacycline (1.5mg/kg every 24 hours) compared to ertapenem (1g every 24 hours), the control therapy in this trial, for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, or cUTI.

In parallel with the clinical trials using IV eravacycline, we are continuing our development program for an oral formulation of eravacycline. We recently completed phase 1 clinical testing in which the administration of oral eravacycline to patients in the fasted state resulted in increased drug exposure. Further clinical tests designed to evaluate other important variables are currently ongoing, with the goal of optimizing the oral eravacycline dosing regimen.

The FDA has granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and Fast Track designations for IV and oral eravacycline for cIAI and cUTI.

In January 2016, we initiated a phase 1 clinical trial of the IV formulation of TP-271, a fully-synthetic fluorocycline being developed for respiratory disease caused by bacterial biothreat pathogens, in healthy volunteers. In February 2017, we received Qualified Infectious Disease Product and Fast Track designations from the FDA and initiated a single-ascending dose phase 1 study for the oral formulation of TP-271. In addition to eravacycline and TP-271, we are pursuing development of TP-6076, a fully-synthetic fluorocycline derivative, as a lead candidate under our second-generation program to target unmet medical needs, including multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In July 2016, we initiated a phase 1 clinical trial using single doses of the IV formulation of TP-6076 in healthy volunteers and have recently initiated a study using multiple doses of the IV formulation of TP-6076.

 



 

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We believe that our proprietary chemistry technology, licensed from Harvard University on an exclusive worldwide basis and enhanced by us, represents a significant innovation in the creation of tetracycline drugs that has the potential to reinvigorate the clinical and market potential of the class. Our proprietary chemistry technology makes it possible to create novel tetracycline antibiotics using a practical, fully synthetic process for what we believe is the first time. This fully synthetic process avoids the limitations of bacterially derived tetracyclines and allows us to chemically modify many positions in the tetracycline scaffold, including most of the positions that we believe could not practically be modified by any previous conventional method. Using our proprietary chemistry technology, we can create a wider variety of tetracycline-based compounds than was previously possible, enabling us to pursue novel tetracycline derivatives for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacteria that are resistant to existing tetracyclines and other classes of antibiotic products. We have used our proprietary chemistry technology to create more than 3,000 new tetracycline derivatives that we believe could not be practically created with conventional methods. We own exclusive worldwide rights to these compounds and our technology.

Recent Developments

At-the-market program

On January 17, 2017, we entered into a Controlled Equity Offering SM Sales Agreement, or Sales Agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., as sales agent. Under the Sales Agreement, we may, from time to time, issue and sell shares of our common stock having up to an aggregate offering price of $40,000,000 through an “at the market offering” program. As of July 6, 2017, we had sold 2,906,462 shares under the Sales Agreement at an average price of $7.81 per share for an aggregate offering price of $22.7 million, before deducting sales commissions and offering expenses. On July 7, 2017, we entered into Amendment No. 1 to the Sales Agreement to increase the maximum aggregate offering price of the shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, that we may issue and sell from time to time under the sales agreement from $40,000,000 to $80,000,000. We refer to the Sales Agreement as amended by Amendment No. 1 as the Amended Sales Agreement. Under the Amended Sales Agreement, we may, from time to time, issue and sell shares of our common stock having up to an aggregate offering price of $80,000,000 through an “at the market offering” program. This prospectus supplement only relates to the additional shares of common stock that may be issued and sold as a result of the amendment. Unless stated otherwise, references to “this offering” throughout this prospectus supplement refer only to the offering of such additional shares of common stock.

Company Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on July 7, 2006. Our principal executive offices are located at 480 Arsenal Way, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472, and our telephone number is (617) 715-3600. Our website address is www.tphase.com . The information contained in, or accessible through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus supplement. We have included our website address in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 



 

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The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us    Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000.

Common stock to be outstanding after

this offering

   Up to 45,600,260 shares, assuming sales at a price of $7.15 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on July 6, 2017. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
Plan of Distribution    “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-12 of this prospectus supplement.
Use of Proceeds    We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund our IGNITE3 clinical trial of eravacycline, pre-commercialization and launch related activities and development of eravacycline for additional indications and of our other product candidates, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement for more information.
Risk Factors    Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement for a discussion of factors to carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
NASDAQ Global Select Market symbol    “TTPH.”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 40,005,854 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2017 and excludes:

 

    6,087,428 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted-average exercise price of $13.49 per share;

 

    165,616 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2017;

 

    175,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of performance stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2017;

 

    1,103 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of $1.00 per share;

 

    593,525 and 171,697 additional shares of our common stock available for future issuance, as of June 30, 2017, under our 2013 stock incentive plan and our 2014 employee stock purchase plan, respectively; and

 

    2,433,780 shares of common stock available for sale after June 30, 2017 under the Sales Agreement prior to giving effect to the amendment (based on $17.4 million of common stock available for sale under the Sales Agreement and assuming sales at a price of $7.15 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on July 6, 2017).

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before investing in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and in Part II, Item IA “Risk Factors” of our most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 8, 2017, together with the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our filings with the SEC that we have incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We expect to update these Risk Factors from time to time in the periodic and current reports we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement. These updated Risk Factors will be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. If any of these risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related To This Offering

If you purchase shares of common stock in this offering, you will suffer immediate and substantial dilution of your investment.

The price per share of our common stock in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you may pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after this offering. To the extent shares are issued under outstanding options at exercise prices lower than the price of our common stock in this offering, you will incur further dilution. Assuming that an aggregate of 5,594,406 shares of our common stock are sold in this offering at a price of $7.15 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on July 6, 2017, for aggregate proceeds to us of $38.8 million after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $3.51 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2017 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future or additional equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may at any time, including during the pendency of this offering, offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering For example, under the Amended Sales Agreement, we may, from time to time, issue and sell shares of our common stock having up to an aggregate offering price of $80,000,000 through an “at the market offering” program. As of July 6, 2017, we had sold 2,906,462 shares under the Sales Agreement at an average price of $7.81 per share for an aggregate offering price of $22.7 million, before deducting sales commissions and offering expenses.

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We have agreed, without the prior written consent of Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, and subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Amended Sales Agreement, not to sell or otherwise dispose of any common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire common stock during the period beginning on the fifth trading day immediately prior to the delivery of any placement notice delivered by us to Cantor Fitzgerald and ending on the fifth trading day immediately following the final settlement date with respect to the shares sold pursuant to such notice. We have further agreed, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the amended sales agreement, not to sell or otherwise dispose of any common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire common stock in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction prior to the termination of the amended sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald. Therefore, it is possible that we could issue and sell additional shares of our common stock in the public markets. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock would have on the market price of our common stock.

 

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We have broad discretion in the use of our cash and cash equivalents, including the net proceeds we receive in this offering, and may not use them effectively.

Our management has broad discretion to use our cash and cash equivalents, including the net proceeds we receive in this offering, to fund our operations and could spend these funds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock, and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use to fund our operations, we may invest our cash and cash equivalents, including the net proceeds from this offering, in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock in this offering under the Amended Sales Agreement having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund our IGNITE3 clinical trial of eravacycline, pre-commercialization and launch related activities and development of eravacycline for additional indications and of our other product candidates, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include research and development expenditures, repayment and refinancing of debt, and working capital and capital expenditures. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as-adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after giving effect to this offering. We calculate net tangible book value per share by dividing the net tangible book value, which is tangible assets less total liabilities, by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution represents the difference between the portion of the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering. Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2017 was approximately $119.0 million, or $3.15 per share.

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus in the aggregate amount of $40,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $7.15 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on July 6, 2017, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2017 would have been $157.7 million, or $3.64 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the net tangible book value of $0.49 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $3.51 per share to new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed offering price per share

      $ 7.15  

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2017

   $ 3.15     

Increase per share attributable to new investors

   $ 0.49     
  

 

 

    

As-adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2017 after giving effect to this offering

      $ 3.64  

Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

      $ 3.51  
     

 

 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 5,594,406 shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus at a price of $7.15 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on July 6, 2017, for aggregate gross proceeds of $40,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price to $8.15 per share, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $40,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering of $3.70 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $4.45 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price to $6.15 per share, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $40,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering of $3.56 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $2.59 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

The above discussion and table are based on 37,749,026 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2017 and excludes the following:

 

    5,910,688 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2017, at a weighted-average exercise price of $13.73 per share;

 

    166,353 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of March 31, 2017;

 

    175,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of performance stock units outstanding as of March 31, 2017;

 

    1,103 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of $1.00 per share;

 

    765,739 and 216,482 additional shares of our common stock available for future issuance, as of March 31, 2017, under our 2013 stock incentive plan and our 2014 employee stock purchase plan, respectively; and

 

    4,811,471 shares of common stock available for sale after March 31, 2017 under the Sales Agreement prior to giving effect to the amendment (based on $34.4 million of common stock available for sale under the Sales Agreement and assuming sales at a price of $7.15 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on July 6, 2017).

 

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PRICE RANGE OF COMMON STOCK

The following table sets forth the high and low intraday sale prices per share of our common stock, as reported on The NASDAQ Global Select Market, for the quarterly periods indicated:

 

     High      Low  

Year ended December 31, 2015

     

First Quarter

   $ 44.55      $ 32.40  

Second Quarter

   $ 48.68      $ 34.68  

Third Quarter

   $ 52.90      $ 7.24  

Fourth Quarter

   $ 12.45      $ 7.20  

Year ended December 31, 2016

     

First Quarter

   $ 9.98      $ 3.48  

Second Quarter

   $ 6.28      $ 3.12  

Third Quarter

   $ 4.65      $ 3.62  

Fourth Quarter

   $ 5.12      $ 3.11  

Year ended December 31, 2017

     

First Quarter

   $ 9.93      $ 3.57  

Second Quarter (through July 6, 2017)

   $ 9.53      $ 6.41  

On July 6, 2017, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market was $7.15 per share. As of July 6, 2017, we had eight holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation, development and growth of our business. The terms of our term loan facility with Silicon Valley Bank and Oxford Finance that we repaid precluded us from paying dividends, and any future debt agreements may also preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of gain for our stockholders for the foreseeable future.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We entered into a Controlled Equity Offering SM sales agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, on January 17, 2017, pursuant to which we may, from time to time, offer and sell up shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000. On July 7, 2017, we entered into Amendment No. 1 to the Sales Agreement to increase the maximum aggregate offering price of the shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, that we may issue and sell from time to time under the sales agreement from $40,000,000 to $80,000,000. We refer to the Sales Agreement as amended by Amendment No. 1 as the Amended Sales Agreement. Under the Amended Sales Agreement, we may, from time to time, issue and sell shares of our common stock having up to an aggregate offering price of $80,000,000 through an “at the market offering” program. Amendment No. 1 will be filed as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” below.

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Amended Sales Agreement, Cantor Fitzgerald may sell our common stock by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through The NASDAQ Global Select Market or on any other existing trading market for our common stock. We or Cantor Fitzgerald may suspend or terminate the offering of our common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

We have agreed to pay Cantor Fitzgerald in cash, upon each sale of our common stock pursuant to the amended sales agreement a commission in an amount equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds from each sale of our common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have agreed, under certain circumstances, to reimburse a portion of Cantor Fitzgerald’s expenses, including legal fees, in connection with the offering of all shares under the Amended Sales Agreement in an aggregate amount (inclusive of expenses paid in connection with entering into the Sales Agreement) not to exceed $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering of such shares, excluding compensation and expense reimbursement payable to Cantor Fitzgerald under the terms of the Amended Sales Agreement, will be (inclusive of expenses paid in connection with entering into the Sales Agreement) approximately $150,000.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the third business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and Cantor Fitzgerald in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Cantor Fitzgerald may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Cantor Fitzgerald has agreed to act as sales agent on a commercially reasonable efforts basis consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The NASDAQ Global Select Market, to solicit offers to purchase shares of our common stock under the terms and conditions set forth in the Amended Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We or Cantor Fitzgerald may suspend the offering of shares of common stock by notifying the other party. We have agreed to provide certain indemnification and contribution to Cantor Fitzgerald against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the Amended Sales Agreement will terminate as permitted therein. We or Cantor Fitzgerald may terminate the Amended Sales Agreement at any time upon ten (10) days’ prior notice.

Cantor Fitzgerald and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, Cantor Fitzgerald will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made available in electronic format on a website maintained by Cantor Fitzgerald and Cantor Fitzgerald may distribute this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus electronically.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Cantor Fitzgerald  & Co. is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.tphase.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus omit some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information on us and our subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s website.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-35837) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed in connection with our 2017 annual meeting of stockholders;

 

    our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2017;

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on each of January 17, 2017, February 3, 2017, April 3, 2017, June 2, 2017 and June 20, 2017; and

 

    the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on March 15, 2013, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or phone number:

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

480 Arsenal Way

Watertown, MA 02472

Attn: Investor Relations

(617) 715-3600

 

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PROSPECTUS

$100,000,000

TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Warrants

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $100,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “TTPH.”

 

 

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “ Risk Factors ” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is December 7, 2016


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     1  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

     4  

CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     19  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     20  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     22  

LEGAL MATTERS

     24  

EXPERTS

     24  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $100,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 1 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, including the risk factors in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended September 30, 2016, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.tphase.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or the SEC’s website.

 

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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded.

This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 000-35837) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

    Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed in connection with our 2016 annual meeting of stockholders;

 

    Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2016; June 30, 2016 and September 30, 2016;

 

    Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on each of January 4, 2016, January 11, 2016 and June 14, 2016;

 

    The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on March 15, 2013, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or phone number:

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

480 Arsenal Way

Watertown, MA 02472

Attn: Investor Relations

(617) 715-3600

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Such forward-looking statements include statements about our plans and strategy for our business, the possible achievement of discovery and development goals and milestones, our future discovery and development efforts, our collaborations, our future operating results and financial position, and other objectives for future operations. We often use words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “target,” “goal,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” and other words and terms of similar meaning to help identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. You also can identify them by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. There are a number of important risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those indicated by forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those inherent in pharmaceutical research and development, such as adverse results in our drug discovery and clinical development activities, decisions made by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory authorities with respect to the development and commercialization of our product candidates, our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights for our drug candidates, competition, our ability to obtain any necessary financing to conduct our planned activities, and other risk factors that are referenced in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the risk factors and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements except to the extent required by law.

 

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TETRAPHASE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Our Business

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company using our proprietary chemistry technology to create novel antibiotics for serious and life-threatening multidrug-resistant infections. We are using our proprietary chemistry technology to create novel antibiotics for serious and life-threatening multidrug-resistant infections. We are developing our lead product candidate, eravacycline, a fully synthetic tetracycline derivative, as a broad-spectrum intravenous, or IV, and oral antibiotic for use as a first-line empiric monotherapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections, including multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

We are conducting a global phase 3 clinical program for eravacycline called IGNITE ( I nvestigating  G ram- N egative  I nfections  T reated with  E ravacycline. We are also pursuing the discovery and development of additional antibiotics that target unmet medical needs, including multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

We are conducting IGNITE4, a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, prospective study that is designed to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of twice-daily eravacycline (1.0 mg/kg every 12 hours) compared with meropenem (1g every 8 hours) for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections, or cIAI. The study is expected to enroll approximately 450 adult patients at 75 centers worldwide. The primary endpoint of IGNITE4 is clinical response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit, which occurs 25 to 31 days after the initial dose of the study drug. The primary efficacy analysis will be conducted using a 12.5% non-inferiority margin in the microbiological intent-to-treat (micro-ITT) population. Consistent with draft guidance issued by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, with respect to the development of antibiotics for cIAI and our discussions with the FDA, we expect that positive results from our phase 3 clinical trials would be sufficient to support submission of a new drug application for eravacycline for the treatment of cIAI.

In January 2016, we initiated a phase 1 clinical trial of the IV formulation of TP-271, a fully synthetic tetracycline derivative being developed for respiratory disease caused by bacterial biothreat pathogens, in healthy volunteers. In addition to eravacycline and TP-271, we are pursuing the discovery and development of additional antibiotics to target unmet medical needs, including multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. We have selected TP-6076, a fully synthetic tetracycline derivative, as a lead candidate under our second-generation program and in July 2016 we initiated a phase 1 clinical trial in of the IV formulation of TP-6076 in healthy volunteers.

We believe that our proprietary chemistry technology, licensed from Harvard University on an exclusive worldwide basis and enhanced by us, represents a significant innovation in the creation of tetracycline drugs that has the potential to reinvigorate the clinical and market potential of the class. Our proprietary chemistry technology makes it possible to create novel tetracycline antibiotics using a practical, fully synthetic process for what we believe is the first time. This fully synthetic process avoids the limitations of bacterially derived tetracyclines and allows us to chemically modify many positions in the tetracycline scaffold, including most of the positions that we believe could not practically be modified by any previous conventional method. Using our proprietary chemistry technology, we can create a wider variety of tetracycline-based compounds than was previously possible, enabling us to pursue novel tetracycline derivatives for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacteria that are resistant to existing tetracyclines and other classes of antibiotic products. As of February 28, 2015, we have used our proprietary chemistry technology to create more than 3,000 new tetracycline derivatives that we believe could not be practically created with conventional methods. We own exclusive worldwide rights to these compounds and our technology.

Our principal executive offices are located at 480 Arsenal Way, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472 and our telephone number is (617) 715-3600.

 

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CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth, for each of the periods presented, our ratio of earnings to fixed charges and the related coverage deficiency. You should read this table in conjunction with the financial statements and notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

(In thousands)    Nine Months
Ended
September 30,
2016
     Years Ended December 31,  
        2015      2014      2013      2012      2011  

Net loss

   $ (55,019    $ (83,189 )    $ (66,742 )    $ (29,636 )    $ (15,087    $ (21,564

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges(1), (2)

     N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

Coverage deficiency

   $ (55,019    $ (83,189 )    $ (66,742 )    $ (29,636 )    $ (15,087    $ (21,564

 

(1) For purposes of calculating the ratio of earnings to fixed charges, earnings consist of net income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes, plus fixed charges. Fixed charges include interest expense and the estimated interest component of rental expense.
(2) We did not record earnings for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 or for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011. Accordingly, our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for such periods and we are unable to disclose a ratio of earnings to fixed charges for such periods.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include working capital and capital expenditures, research and development expenses, including clinical trial costs, general and administrative expenses, potential acquisition of, or investment in, companies, technologies, products or assets that complement our business, and repayment and refinancing of debt. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc., excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiaries.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

None of the indentures will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsubordinated general obligations and will rank pari passu with our other unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

 

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The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities being offered, including the following terms:

 

    the title and type of the debt securities;

 

    whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to debt securities issued under the subordinated indenture the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

    the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

    the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

    the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

    the rate or rates, if any, per year, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

    the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such interest payment dates and the related record dates;

 

    the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

    the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

    provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

    any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

    the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

    any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

    whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased;

 

    any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture;

 

    whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

    whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

    whether the debt securities will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms and provisions of such collateral, security, pledge or other related agreements;

 

    any material tax implications of the debt securities; and

 

    any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants.  Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets.  Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

    the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust (subject to certain exceptions provided for in the senior indenture);

 

    the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

    immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

    certain other conditions are met.

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control.  Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

Events of Default.  Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture for any series of senior debt securities:

 

    failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

    failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

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    default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

    certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

    any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to us and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive an existing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

    the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

    the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

    the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

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    the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

    during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge . We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

    we pay or cause to be paid, as and when due and payable, the principal of and any interest on all senior debt securities of such series outstanding under the senior indenture; or

 

    all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year) and we deposit in trust a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance.  Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and discharge and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

Legal Defeasance . We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

    We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

    There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

    We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

 

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If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance . Without any change of current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

    We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

    We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Modification and Waiver.  We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities without the consent of any holder:

 

    to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

    to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

    to comply with the requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act;

 

    to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

    to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

    to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

    to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

    to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

    to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of senior debt securities;

 

    to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

    to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

 

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Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the amendment or modification (voting together as a single class); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

    extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

    reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

    reduces the rate or extends the time of payment of interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

    reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

    changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

    reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

    waives an uncured default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (except in the case of a rescission of acceleration as described above);

 

    changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

    modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification; or

 

    reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies, amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors.  The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee.  The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

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The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds.  All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, premium or interest became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law.  The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination.  The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

    all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

    all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

    all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

    all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

    all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

 

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unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated debt indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 125,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, all of which preferred stock is undesignated. The following description of our capital stock and provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws are summaries and are qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws. Copies of these documents are filed with the SEC as exhibits to our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 13, 2013.

Common Stock

As of November 3, 2016, we had outstanding 36,904,415 shares of common stock, held of record by 8 stockholders. We believe that the number of beneficial owners of our common stock at that date was substantially greater.

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. In general, except (1) for the election of directors, (2) as described below under “—Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Charter and Bylaws”, (3) in the future to the extent that we have two or more classes or series of stock outstanding with separate voting rights and (4) as otherwise required by law, any matter to be voted on by our stockholders at any meeting, shall be decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter.

Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of our outstanding preferred stock.

In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any of our outstanding preferred stock.

Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Listing on The NASDAQ Global Market

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “TTPH.”

Authorized but Unissued Shares

The authorized but unissued shares of common stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the NASDAQ Listing Rules. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate finance transactions, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock could make it more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

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Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

If we decide to issue any preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe in a prospectus supplement the specific terms of the preferred stock, including, if applicable, the following:

 

    the title and stated value;

 

    the number of shares we are offering;

 

    the liquidation preference per share;

 

    the purchase price;

 

    the dividend rate, period and payment date, and method of calculation for dividends;

 

    whether dividends will be cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

    the relative ranking and preference of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs

 

    the procedures for any auction and remarketing;

 

    the provisions for a sinking fund;

 

    the provisions for redemption or repurchase and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

    the listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

    whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock and, if convertible, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

    whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities and, if exchangeable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

    voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

    preemptive rights;

 

    restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment;

 

    whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

    a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

    any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

    any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

The preferred stock could have other rights, including economic rights that are senior to our common stock that could adversely affect the market value of our common stock. The issuance of the preferred stock may also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us without any action by the shareholders.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors.

 

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Staggered Board; Removal of Directors

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws divide our board of directors into three classes with staggered three-year terms. In addition, a director may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors. Any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the removal of directors and filling of vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of our company.

Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings

Our certificate of incorporation provides that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of our stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or our board of directors.

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals

Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities. These provisions could also discourage a third party from making a tender offer for our common stock, because even if it acquired a majority of our outstanding voting stock, it would be able to take action as a stockholder, such as electing new directors or approving a merger, only at a duly called stockholders meeting and not by written consent.

Delaware Business Combination Statute

Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, which we refer to as the DGCL, is applicable to us. Section 203 of the DGCL restricts some types of transactions and business combinations between a corporation and a 15% stockholder. A 15% stockholder is generally considered by Section 203 to be a person owning 15% or more of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock. Section 203 refers to a 15% stockholder as an “interested stockholder.” Section 203 restricts these transactions for a period of three years from the date the stockholder acquires 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. With some exceptions, unless the transaction is approved by the board of directors and the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation, Section 203 prohibits significant business transactions such as:

 

    a merger with, disposition of significant assets to or receipt of disproportionate financial benefits by the interested stockholder, and

 

    any other transaction that would increase the interested stockholder’s proportionate ownership of any class or series of our capital stock.

The shares held by the interested stockholder are not counted as outstanding when calculating the two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock needed for approval.

 

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The prohibition against these transactions does not apply if:

 

    prior to the time that any stockholder became an interested stockholder, the board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction in which such stockholder acquired 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, or

 

    the interested stockholder owns at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock as a result of a transaction in which such stockholder acquired 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. Shares held by persons who are both directors and officers or by some types of employee stock plans are not counted as outstanding when making this calculation.

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above under “—Staggered Board; Removal of Directors” and “—Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of those securities, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

    the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

    the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

    the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

    whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities;

 

    whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms;

 

    any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

    the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

    the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

    the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

    the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

    if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock with which the warrants are issued and, the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

    the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

    if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

    information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

    the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

    any redemption or call provisions; and

 

    any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture or warrant agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

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Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent or any other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee or warrant agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

    to or through underwriters;

 

    to or through brokers or dealers;

 

    through agents;

 

    directly to one or more purchasers in negotiated sales or competitively bid transactions; or

 

    through a block trade in which the broker or dealer engaged to handle the block trade will attempt to sell the securities as agent, but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; or

 

    through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

    at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

    at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

    at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

    at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

    the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

    the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

    any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

    all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

    any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

    any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

 

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If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

    the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

    if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in three business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the third business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

 

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The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, to the extent applicable, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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July 7, 2017